ONION VARIETY TRIALS

Charles E. Stanger and Joey Ishida

Malheur Experiment Station
Oregon State University
Ontario, Oregon, 1995
 

Purpose

To evaluate commercial and experimental lines of different varieties of yellow, white, and red onions for bulb yield and quality.


Procedures

Sugar beets and wheat had been grown in the field during 1993 and 1994, respectively. The wheat stubble was shredded and the field deep-chiseled, disked, irrigated, and moldboard-plowed in the fall. The Owyhee silt loam soil containing 1.2 percent organic matter and with a pH of 7.3. Before plowing, 100 lbs/ac of P2O5, and 60 lbs N/ac were broadcast. After plowing, the field was bedded and left until spring without further tillage.

Onion seed was received from 14 companies; American Takii, Aristogenes, Asgrow, Bejo, Crookham, Ferry Morse, Dakota Seeds, Harris Moran, Nippon Noran, Petoseed, Rio Colorado, Rispen Seeds, Shamrock, and Sunseeds. Seventy-seven onion varieties were planted April 5 and 6 in plots 4 rows wide and 27 feet long. The onions were planted on 22-inch single-row beds. Each variety was planted in five replications. Seed for each row was prepackaged using enough seed for a planting rate of 12 viable seeds per foot of row. Seed was planted using 12-inch- diameter cone-seeders mounted on a John Deere Model 71 flexi-planter unit equipped with disc openers.

The onions were furrow-irrigated during the growing season. The first irrigation was applied on April 8 to supply the soil with moisture for seed germination and seedling emergence and growth.

On May 12 through May 16 the seedling onion plants were thinned by hand to a plant population of four plants/linear foot of row (3-inch spacing between individual onion plants). On May 20, 210 lbs N/ac as NH4SO4 was sidedressed. Nitrogen was shanked on each side of every row. On June 12, lay-bye herbicides were applied, and the onions were cultivated for the final time. Karate insecticide was applied at 2-week intervals during June, July, and August for thrip control. Because of hail damage on June 16 and 19 and again on July 29, Ridomil fungicide was applied in combination with the insecticide.

Bulb maturity ratings for each plot were taken on August 11, 18, 28, and September 4 and 15. Maturity ratings were recorded as percent of growing bulbs, with necks collapsed and leaves laying on the ground. All pests were controlled and were not a negating factor in varietal performance.

The onion bulbs were flail-topped and lifted on September 15 and field-dried for five days. On September 20, onion bulbs from the two center rows of each four-row plot were placed in small slatted wooden boxes. The boxed onions were put in storage boxes (4 x 4 x 6 feet) and left in the field for one week for further air drying. The boxes were placed in storage on September 27 and 28.

The onion bulbs were removed from storage and graded from December 19 through December 27. Bulbs were graded according to their diameter and quality. Size categories were 2¼ to 3-inch, 3 to 4-inch, and 4-inch and larger. Split bulbs were graded as No. 2s. Bulbs rotted by Botrytis neckrot and bacterial organisms were weighed and the percent of rotten bulbs was calculated.


Results

Because of higher than normal outside temperatures and humidity occurring during the storage season, significant amounts of storage rot occurred this year.

Varieties are listed by company in alphabetical order and according to rank for total bulb yield for each company's varieties (Table 1). Average bulb yields were 782 cwt/ac with 57.5 percent colossal-sized bulbs, 40.2 percent jumbo's, and 1.4 percent No. 2's. Average neckrot for all varieties was 20.2 percent.

Statistical data are included at the bottom of the tables and should be considered when comparisons are made between varieties for yield and quality performance potential. Differences equal to or greater than LSD (0.05) values should exist before one variety is considered superior to another.
 

Table 1. Yield and quality of commercial and experimental onion cultivars evaluated in 1995 trials. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, Oregon, 1995.
 
        Yield by market grade Maturity ratings Bolters1
Company Variety Total yield Storage rot > 4 inch 3 - 4 inch 2 1/4 - 3 inch No. 2's 8/11 8/18 8/28 9/4 9/15  
    cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac % %  
American Takii T-405 808 15. 5 376 46. 5 428 53. 0 3. 2 0. 4 1. 0 0. 11 0 5 20 45 75 0
  Condor 796 11. 5 448 56. 3 344 43. 2 2. 5 0. 3 1. 2 0. 15 0 15 30 50 78 3
  9002 724 11. 8 392 54. 1 326 45. 0 2. 4 0. 3 3. 7 0. 53 0 10 18 30 60 0
Aristogene AX-1514 1061 31. 6 898 84. 7 161 15. 1 2. 1 0. 2 0 0 0 3 15 25 58 5
  Bravo 1057 39. 3 943 89. 3 109 10. 3 3. 0 0. 3 1. 1 0. 09 0 0 12 17 40 14 
  El Padre 1025 39. 9 858 83. 8 164 16. 0 2. 6 0. 3 0 0 0 0 5 10 25 16 
  AX-1632 1022 25. 7 833 81. 6 182 17. 8 3. 0 0. 3 2. 9 0. 28 0 5 15 35 60 3
  Seville 981 29. 0 876 89. 2 100 10. 3 2. 7 0. 3 2. 5 0. 25 0 0 10 20 40 6
  Madrid 968 37. 7 700 72. 4 255 26. 3 7. 9 0. 8 5. 9 0. 60 0 0 5 18 35 2
  Capri 946 26. 9  743 78. 4 200 21. 2 1. 9 0. 2 1. 6 0. 16 0 2 12 25 50 5
  Maritime 876 16. 6 635 72. 5 232 26. 5 1. 8 0. 2 1. 6 0. 85 10  45 65 80 85 11 
  AX-2661 817 12. 3 469 57. 4 339 41. 5 3. 1 0. 4 6.1 0. 73 2 10 25 45 70 6
  AX-3102 814 19. 9 447 54. 9 362 44. 4 1. 8 0. 2 3. 2 0. 39 0 0 5 15 45 9
  Envoy 776 15. 8 477 61. 5 283 36. 4 9. 1 1. 2 6. 8 0. 87 10  40 65 80 90 4
Asgrow Viper 928 13. 0 687 74. 1 234 25. 2 2. 7 0. 3 3. 5 0. 37 10  40 65 75 80 7
  Viceroy 861 9. 6 627 72. 8 229 26. 6 3. 7 0. 4 1. 4 0. 16 5 40 70 80 90 1
  Regiment 850 12. 4 662  77. 8 187 22. 0 1. 0 0. 1 0. 7 0. 08 30  65 80 85 90 11 
  Fury 673 8. 4 361 53. 6 306 45. 4 4. 5 0. 7 2. 2 0. 32 40  70 85 93 95 0
Bejo Seeds Redwing 711 8. 8 301 42. 2 408 57. 4 2. 5 0. 4 0 0 0 25 50 60 75 1
  BGS-77 679 12. 6 285 42. 0 386 56. 9 6. 6 1. 0 1. 2 0. 18  0 10 15 40 65 0
  Daytona 669 11. 7 277 41. 4 382 57. 0 5. 3 0. 8 5. 4 0. 8  0 2 10 20 55 0
  Gladstone 636 25. 3 213 33. 4 412 64. 7 10. 7  1. 7 1. 4 0. 2  0 3 6 15 40 2
  Santana 603 9. 5 220 36. 6 374 62. 0 7. 2 1. 2 1. 2 0. 2  2 30 50 65 88 0
  Prince 547 0. 9 137 25. 1 393 71. 8 16. 2  2. 9 1. 0 0. 2  25  70 95 98 100  6
  Sundance 540 1. 1 126 23. 3 375 69. 4 17. 1  3. 2 22. 8  4. 1  10  55 85 95 98 0
Crookham Celebrity 949 35. 9 724 76. 2 212 22. 3 0. 4 0 13. 2  1. 4  2 10 20 45 4
  Sweet Perfection 933 31. 0 701 75. 2 223 23. 8 1. 6 0. 2 7. 6 0. 8  3 20 55 65 75 9
  Sweet Amber 929 31. 4 754 81. 2 160 17. 3 6. 3 0. 7 8. 3 0. 9  2 15 35 60 65 7
  XPH-94378 894 32. 5 584  65. 3 298 33. 3 4. 2 0. 5 7. 7 0. 9  0 0 5 15 40 7
  XPH-94385 831 37. 6 553 `66. 6 268 32. 2 1. 9 0. 2 8. 5 1. 0  0 0 10 25 45 2
Dakota Seed Dakota BII 970 41. 9 752 77. 6 200 20. 7 2. 9 0. 3 14. 4  1. 4  0 0 15 30 45 25 
  Cherokee 886 26. 3 688 77. 6 188 21. 2 1. 3 0. 2 9. 1 1. 1  0 2 15 30 50 4
  Cuzco 856 33. 0 558 65. 2 286 33. 3 6. 6 0. 8 6. 0 0. 7  0 0 3 15 45 1
  Klondike 761 33. 1 375 49. 3 356 46. 8 4. 6 0. 6 25. 5  3. 3  0 3 7 20 45 0
  Mohawk 560 1. 5 117 20. 9 412 73. 6 11. 5  2. 0 19. 2  3. 4  20  50 75 90 98 0
  Laramie 463 0. 6 28 6. 1 420 90. 7 13. 5  2. 9 1. 3 0. 3  30  80 95 98 100  1
  Buckskin 416 1. 8 34 8. 1 249 60. 0 29. 6  7. 1 103. 4  24. 8  40  55 85 98 100  0
Ferry Morse Caesar 843 23. 6 531 63. 1 307 36. 4 1. 3 0. 2 2. 7 0. 3  0 5 20 40 60 4
  Augustus 804 31. 8 540 67. 2 250  31. 1 3. 3 0. 4 10. 1  1. 2  0 2 5 15 35 4
  Oro Grande 800 21. 8 480 60. 0 312 39. 0 4. 4 0. 5 3. 8 0. 5  2 30 45 60 75 6
  Fabius 774 16. 4 492 63. 5 279 36. 2 1. 4 0. 2 1. 6 0. 2  5 10 30 55 70 15 
Table one continued on next page
        Yield by market grade Maturity ratings Bolters1
Company Variety Total yield Storage rot > 4 inch 3 - 4 inch 2 1/4 - 3 inch No. 2's 8/11 8/18 8/28 9/4 9/15  
    cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac % cwt/ac %  %  
Harris Moran HMX-3630 861 34. 8 586 68. 1 268 31. 2 3. 4 0. 4 2. 7 0. 3 0 0 5 15 30 9
  HMX-0628 814 11. 8  501 61. 6 299 36. 7 2. 2 0. 3 11. 7 1. 4 15 45 75 85 93 3
  HMX-0627 562 12. 2  186 33. 0 355 63. 2 15. 9  2. 6 6. 5 1. 2 20 40 55 60 85 4
  White Ivory 462 6. 4 49 10. 6 358 77. 7 17. 3  3. 7 37. 4  8. 0 0 10 20 35 75 0
Nippon Noran Tenschin 579 1. 9  128 22. 2 443 76. 5 6. 8 1. 2 0. 5 0 35 80 98 100  100  0
Petoseed Quest 1093  42. 5  1008  92. 2 83 7. 6 2. 3 0. 2 0 0 0 2 15 25 50 12 
  Vision 982 32. 0 786 80. 1 189 19. 1 2. 3 0. 2 5. 3 0. 6 0 2 10 30 60 2
  Shasta 955 39. 8 754 79. 0 197 20. 6 3. 5 0. 4 0. 1 0 0 2 10 20 55 32 
  Apex 821 20. 6 432 52. 8 377 45. 8 5. 6 0. 7 5. 8 0. 7 0 10 25 35 60 0
  Teton 776 15. 5 501 64. 6 271 35. 0 3. 6 0. 5 0 0 5 20 45 60 85 6
  Pinnacle 668 6. 5 261 39. 1 401 60. 0 5. 8 0. 9 0 0 5 15 25 50 75 0
  Diamond 604 27. 8 179 29. 7 411 68. 1 9. 3 1. 5 4. 2 0. 7 0 5 10 15 45 2
  PSX-81791 585 4. 7 156 26. 6 391 66. 8 9. 2 1. 5 30. 2  5. 1 3 10 20 45 75 0
  Fuego 496 2. 4 101 20. 3 360 72. 6 11. 8  2. 4 23. 1  4. 6 0 15 25 45 80 1
Rio Colorado Challenge 800 20. 2 535 67. 0 245 30. 6 3. 9 0. 5 15. 8  2. 0 5 25 35 55 65 6
  Discovery 733 14. 7 403 55. 0 310 42. 3 6. 7 0. 9 13. 4  1. 8 15 65 80 85 85 1
  Rio Seco 727 5. 3 387 53. 3 329 45. 3 3. 2 0. 4 7. 3 1. 0 65 80 95 95 95 1
Rispen Seeds Golden Security 955 34. 0 737 77. 2 209 21. 9 1. 4 1. 5 6. 8 0. 7 0 3 10 25 50 12 
  Victory 932 31. 6 720 77. 3 201 21. 6 2. 2 0. 2 8. 3 0. 9 0 10 30 50 65 2
  Bellringer 860 38. 3 645 75. 0 206 23. 9 2. 4 0. 3 6. 9 0. 8 0 0 5 15 35 6
Shamrock SSC-0617 885 26. 9 632 71. 4 243 27. 4 4. 9 0. 6 5. 2 0. 6 0 5 15 35 60 11 
  SSC-0199 789 18. 1 477 60. 5 262 33. 2 5. 1 0. 6 44. 9  5. 6 0 3 15 35 60 9
  SSC-3360 763 14. 1 471 61. 7 254 33. 3 4. 3 0. 6 34. 4  4. 5 15 40 60 75 80 0
  Impala 692 7. 9 301 43. 6 340 49. 2 8. 3 1. 2 42. 8  6. 0 20 60 80 90 95 2
Sunseeds Winner 968 33. 6 807 83. 5 161 16. 5 0 0 0 0 7 20 45 70 24 
  Valdez 923 38. 5 788 85. 3 131 14. 2 2. 0 0. 2 2. 9 0. 3 0 3 8 20 45 5
  Vaquero 901 32. 4 732 81. 2 168 18. 6 0. 8 0. 1 1. 2 0. 2 0 2 10 20 60 0
  Tesoro 783 10. 0 420 53. 6 357 45. 6 4. 5 0. 6 1. 7 0. 2 15 55 70 75 88 6
  Bullring 728 13. 4 457 62. 8 265 36. 3 4. 1 0. 6 2. 5 0. 3 5 45 70 80 85 3
  Snow White 723 44. 2 383 52. 9 303 42. 0 5. 4 0. 7 32. 1  4. 3 0 0 3 8 25 9
  Sunex 1440 722 4. 3 309 42. 8 411 56. 8 1. 3 0. 2 1. 2 0. 2 3 15 40 70 90 2
  Valient 709 15. 2 439 61. 9 264 37. 1 4. 8 0. 7 1. 7 0. 3 2 30 50 65 85 9
  Brahma 671 6. 5 312 46. 7 352 52. 3 4. 6 0. 7 2. 1 0. 3 20  50 75 85 90 1
  Mambo 643 5. 4 307 47. 7 301 46. 7 7. 1 1. 1 29. 0  4. 4 0 10 18 30 70 2
  Blanco Duro 620 37. 1 244 39. 4 370 59. 7 2. 8 0. 5 3. 1 0. 5 0 0 7 15 40 8
  Tango 445 1. 5 85. 4  19. 2 334 75. 0 22. 0  4. 9 4. 2 0. 9 5 30 45 60 85 0
Mean 782 20. 2 482 57. 5 285 40. 2 5. 4 0. 9 9. 3 1. 4 - - - - - -
LSD (0.05) 33 7. 5 30  3. 2 30  3. 3 5. 7 0. 9 11. 1  1. 6 - - - - - -
CV (%) 3. 3 13. 3 5. 0 2. 0 8. 3  2. 9 37. 4  36. 5  42. 6  39. 5  - - - - - -
1Number of bolting onion bulbs per 1440 onion plants.