Small Grain Variety Trials

Eric P. Eldredge, Clinton C. Shock, Russ S. Karow, Ernie Marx, and Lamont Saunders
Malheur Experiment Station,
Oregon State University
Ontario, OR, 1998

Introduction

The purpose of these trials was to evaluate the performance of small grain cultivars that were in development, newly released, or commercially available. Plant breeders gain site-specific performance information for advanced lines and new releases. The local adaptation of new varieties in comparison to standard varieties can help growers decide which variety to plant. Four small grain variety trials were conducted at Malheur Experiment Station in the 1997-1998 crop year, as a location of the OSU statewide variety testing program. The trials included winter and spring barley trials and winter and spring wheat trials.

Methods

All winter and spring variety trials were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each plot was planted on a 60-in bed with seven rows spaced 6 in apart on the bed. Plot length was 20 ft, with 3.5 ft alleys cut between tiers of plots before harvest. Winter grain trials followed sweet corn; the stubble was flailed, and the field was disked, then 100 lb/acre P2O5 and 20 lb/acre N were applied. The field was deep ripped, plowed, and groundhogged to prepare the seedbed. The field was marked out into 60-in beds and staked for plots. Winter grain trials were planted October 17, at a rate of 30 seeds/ft2 for the winter barleys, and 120 lb/acre for the winter wheats. The field was recorrugated on 30-in rows immediately after planting, then furrow-irrigated to promote rapid and even germination and emergence. Soil sampling February 10, 1998, showed 127.5 lb N/ac in the top 2 ft of soil.

The spring barley and spring wheat trials were planted March 20, 1998, in the same field beside the winter trials, on 5-ft by 20-ft plots, replicated three times. Seeding rate was 30 seeds/ft2 for spring barleys and spring wheats.

All trials were furrow-irrigated. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied May 5 at 47 lb N/acre in the form of urea prills. Bronate herbicide was applied June 9 at 1.5 pt/acre. The winter cereal plots were harvested July 21, and the spring plots were harvested July 22; the grain from each plot was bagged and tagged. The grain samples were analyzed at the OSU Cereals Laboratory, Corvallis, and the results were tabulated and posted at www.css.orst.edu/cereals.

Results

The grain variety trials at Malheur Experiment Station were badly damaged by severe hail on July 4, 1998.

Winter barley dates of 50 percent heading, plant height at maturity, lodging, and visually estimates of hail loss are recorded in Table 1. The winter barley trial was harvested but the yields were so low and variable due to hail damage as to be meaningless.

The OSU spring barley trial (Table 2) included seven feed-barleys, three malting barleys, three dual-use barleys, and three experimental varieties of unspecified market class. Yields ranged from 4,081 lb/acre for UC958 to 1,559 lb/acre for BCD 22. Test weights ranged from 51.8 lb/bu for Baronnesse to 43.8 lb/bu for UC958. Protein content ranged from 10.8 percent for 78AB10274 and Chinook to 8.8 percent for Galena. Tango and UC958 were the earliest spring barleys, with 50 percent heading observed at May 31, while Idagold was the latest, with 50 percent heading two weeks later on June 15. Lodging was severe in this trial because of the July 4 hail, wind and rain, averaging 60 percent. Lodging ranged from 35 percent for UC958 to 93 percent for Steptoe, with great variability among plots. BCD22 had high visually estimated hail loss and was among the barleys with the lowest yield in this trial.

The OSU Statewide Winter wheat trial (Table 3) included 18 soft white varieties, 5 club wheats, 2 hard red wheats and 1 hard white winter wheat. Yields were reduced by hail damage at this location, ranging from 102 bu/acre for Rod to 42 bu/acre for Foote. Test weight ranged from 62.9 lb/bu for Hybritech 1019 to 52.6 lb/bu for Hiller. Protein content ranged from 11.6 percent for SDM 215-2 to 9 percent for OR939515. Thousand kernel weight ranged from 50.1 g/k for Lambert to 23.8 g/k for ID86-10420A. Heading dates ranged from May 12 for Foote to May 30 for Rod, Coda, Madsen, and Eltan. Plant height ranged from 47-in tall ID86-10420A down to 36-in tall Brundage. Only Eltan lodged in this trial.

The OSU Statewide Spring wheat trial included 13 soft white types, 7 hard white wheats, and 6 hard red spring wheats (Table 4). Yields following hail damage ranged from 73 bu/acre for WA7850 to 34 bu/acre for Yecora Rojo. Test weight of the spring wheat varieties ranged from 63 lb/bu for Yecora Rojo to 46.9 lb/bu for Pomerelle. Protein content ranged from 12.1 percent for WPB 936 to 9.3 percent for WA7850, Promise, and SDM50-30. Thousand kernel weight ranged from 42 g/k for WPB BZ 987-331 to 27.7 g/k for IDO377S and Pomerelle. Date of 50 percent heading ranged from May 30 for Yecora Rojo to June 12 for WA7850, ML 107-455, Whitebird, Wawawai, IDO533, Alpowa, OR4870453, Pomerelle, and OR4920307. Plant height ranged from 47 in for Wawawai to 32 in for Yecora Rojo. Lodging was observed in WA7850 and IDO377S, while Yecora Rojo suffered the most hail damage of the spring wheat varieties in this trial.

Table 1. Heading date, plant height, lodging, hail damage, and uncleaned yield for winter barleys, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Variety

Market class

50 percent heading Plant height 7/13

lodging

Visual estimate

of hail loss

Uncleaned yield
doy in % % lb/acre

Kold

6RF

132 41 13 50 2,990

Scio

6RF

134 39 0 73 2,391

Steptoe

6RF

124 49 3 90 900

ORW10

6RF/M

123 39 0 90 731

ORW11

6RF

135 42 10 87 1,889

Strider

6RF

134 38 0 67 3,878

OR1957369

6RF

134 37 0 87 1,690

Pride

6RF

144 39 27 67 3,278

Sprinter

6RF

142 39 0 67 2,073

Average

134 40 6 75 2,202

LSD 0.05

3 3.7 NS 11 NS

NS: not significant.

Table 2. Yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight, heading date, plant height, lodging, and hail damage for spring barleys, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Variety

Market class

Yield

Test weight

Protein

1000 kernel Heading date

Height

Lodging

Hail damage
lb/acre lb/bu % (g) DOY (in.) % %

UC958

2RF 4,081 43.8 9.6 37.0 151 35 57 20

BZ 594-19

2RF 3,829 50.1 9.6 36.5 163 48 67 30

C-32

2RM 3,759 47.2 9.6 31.6 163 38 50 13

Orca

2RF/M 3,526 53.5 10.4 45.9 152 49 67 30

Baronesse

2RF 3,278 51.8 9.1 32.1 163 45 60 37

BCD 47

2RF/M 3,189 45.5 10.7 34.0 163 37 73 33

Galena

2RM 3,100 47.9 8.8 35.2 164 42 37 37

BCD 12

2RF/M 3,023 48.1 9.1 34.9 162 36 10 37

MT920073

  2,636 50.5 10.5 35.0 160 48 60 47

H3860224

  2,606 50 10.7 34.0 163 47 87 43

Tango

6RF 2,545 46.7 9.3 33.8 151 48 73 33

Idagold

2RF 2,531 44.9 10.2 27.9 166 40 70 33

78AB10274

2RM 2,522 49.4 10.8 38.4 163 50 77 60

Sprinter

6RF 1,986 43.9 9.3 25.3 162 45 40 27

Gallatin

2RF 1,906 49.3 10.4 32.8 160 50 67 17

Steptoe

6RF 1,765 44.1 9.1 32.4 157 -- 93 30

Chinook

2RM 1,717 50 10.8 37.8 157 50 80 40

BCD 22

2RF/M 1,559 50.9 9.6 32.4 164 36 13 70

Mean

  2,753 48.2 9.8 34.3 160 44 60 35

LSD (0.05)

  1,172 4.5 NS   4 4 NS NS

LSD (0.10)

  975 3.7 1.2          

CV

  26 6 9.0          

P-value

  0 0 0.1          

NS: not significant.

Table 3. Yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight, heading date, plant height, lodging, and hail damage for winter wheats. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Variety

Market class Yield Test weight Protein 1000

kernel

Heading date Height Lodging Hail damage
bu/acre lb/bu % g doy in. % %

Rod

SW 102 57.3 10.1 37.6 150 40 0 0

WA7752 (Coda)

Club 98 62 9.8 36.9 150 42 0 0

Rohde

Club 85 58 10.2 30.1 144 37 0 0

ORCL0054 (Temple)

Club 84 59 10.6 37 137 43 0 0

Rely

Club 84 60.2 9.7 36.4 150 39 0 3

Hybritech 1019

SW 82 62.9 10.6 45.5 136 41 0 23

Stephens-Raxil

SW 82 59.2 10.8 46 142 40 0 23

SDM 215-2

HR 78 63.3 11.6 40.1 140 38 0 10

Madsen

SW 76 59.2 10.2 40.3 150 39 0 3

Hiller

Club 76 52.6 10.5 28.8 148 38 0 10

ID86-10420A

SW 75 60.4 9.7 23.8 149 47 0 17

Madsen+Stephens

SW 75 59.4 10.1 42.5 144 39 0 13

Stephens-Vitavax+ Gaucho

SW 73 59.4 10.7 41.3 141 37 0 17

OR898120 (Weatherford)

SW 73 60.5 10 38.6 147 42 0 10

Stephens-Dividend

SW 73 60.3 9.8 47.3 142 40 0 13

Eltan

SW 68 58.5 9.7 38.8 150 41 27 13

ID467

HR 67 61.3 10.8 42.2 147 40 0 17

Gene

SW 67 59.3 10.9 41.3 137 37 0 17

Hybritech 1017

SW 67 59.5 9.5 43.7 142 43 0 17

OR939515

SW 65 61.5 9 44.3 142 41 0 10

Lambert

SW 64 60.5 10 50.1 142 41 0 27

Stephens -Vitavax, no Gaucho

SW 63 60.2 9.9 48.3 139 39 0 17

MacVicar

SW 60 58.6 9.9 42.8 144 41 0 33

OR850513 (Ivory)

HW 59 60.4 10.9 41.3 134 42 0 17

ID14502B (Brundage)

SW 57 62.2 9.8 40.3 132 36 0 20

OR880172 (Foote)

SW 42 59.2 10.9 42.6 142 43 0 40

Mean

73 59.8 10.2 40.3 143 40 1 14

LSD (0.05)

19 2.7 1   4 4 NS 10

LSD (0.10)

16 2.2 0.9          

P-value

0 0 0.01          

CV

16 3 6          

NS: not significant.

Table 4. Yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight, heading date, plant height, lodging, and hail damage for spring wheats. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Variety

Market class

Yield

Test weight

Protein

1000

kernel

Heading date

Height

Lodging

Hail damage
bu/acre lb/bu % g doy in --------%--------

WA7850

SW 73 58.1 9.3 35.5 163 39 37 3

IDO506

SW 71 57.5 9.9 30.6 161 43 3 10

WPB BZ 987-331

HR 69 60.6 11.3 42 152 42 0 23

IDO377S

HW 69 58.2 11.4 27.7 162 43 33 0

IDO505

SW 66 59.3 9.8 34.4 162 42 3 7

WPB BZ 992-108

SW 63 59.1 9.7 36.6 162 42 3 10

Jefferson

HR 63 60.8 12 34.5 155 40 7 7

Promise

SW 63 58.1 9.3 27.8 162 41 0 17

ML107-455

HW 61 58.1 10.7 35.8 163 39 10 13

Whitebird (ID392)

SW 61 58.7 9.8 30.3 163 42 0 13

WA7802

HR 59 59.7 12 34.6 159 44 3 0

IDO523

HW 58 57.4 11 27.8 161 38 0 23

SDM50-30

SW 58 58.8 9.3 28.9 162 40 3 13

OR3900362

HR 57 59.1 11.6 31.3 161 40 0 17

Penawawa

SW 57 60 10.3 32.5 161 40 0 20

Alpowa (no Gaucho)

SW 56 58.2 9.9 31.7 162 43 0 20

Wawawai

SW 55 58.5 9.9 35.3 163 47 13 7

WPB 936

HR 54 59.6 12.1 36.9 153 37 0 0

IDO533

HW 54 58.6 10.7 27.9 163 39 0 17

OR4870255

HW 54 62.6 11.2 35.9 151 41 0 10

Alpowa

SW 53 58.5 10 32.1 163 43 0 17

OR4870453

HW 52 57.6 11 28.3 163 38 0 20

Pomerelle

SW 48 46.9 10.2 27.7 163 34 0 10

OR942845

SW 47 59.1 10 31.4 162 41 0 17

OR4920307

HW 42 58.7 11.5 32.6 163 40 0 17

Yecora Rojo

HR 34 63 12 40.9 150 32 0 40

Mean

57 58.6 10.6 32.7 160 40 4 13

LSD (0.05)

12 1.8 0.8   2 2 19 11

LSD (0.10)

10 1.5 0.6          

CV

13 2 4          

P-value

0 0 0