Onion Varieties Graded out of Storage, 1996-1998

Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, and Lamont D. Saunders
Malheur Experiment Station
Oregon State University
Ontario, OR, 1998

Summary

Commercial varieties and experimental lines of yellow, white, and red onions were compared for yield, grade, and storability. Field observations were made for relative maturity and bolting. Yield and grade were determined out of storage in January. Total yield ranged only from 134 to 526 cwt/acre in 1998. Onion yields were significantly lower in 1998 compared to 1996 and 1997 because of a wetter and cooler than normal spring, a severe hail storm on July 4, and hotter than normal weather in July and August. Significant differences (LSD (0.05)) occurred between varieties in market grades, bolting, maturity, and decomposition in storage.

Introduction

The objectives of this trial were to evaluate varieties of yellow, white, and red onions for bulb yield and quality.

Methods

The 1998 trials were conducted on a Greenleaf silt loam soil with 2.3 percent organic matter and a pH of 6.6. The field had previously been planted to wheat. In the fall, before plowing, 100 lb P2O5/acre and 20 lb N/acre were broadcast. The wheat stubble was shredded, and the field was deep-chiseled, disked, irrigated, moldboard-plowed, roller- harrowed, fumigated with Telone C-17 at 20 gal/acre, and bedded.

Beds were knocked down March 30. On March 31 Dacthal at 4 lb ai/acre was applied on an 11-in band along the top of the bed. The Dacthal was incorporated the next day with a bed harrow.

Seed of 58 varieties from 16 companies was planted April 2. Participating seed companies were: American Takii, Aristogene, Asgrow, Bejo, Champion, Crookham, D. Palmer, Dorsing, Harris Moran, Petoseed, Rio Colorado, Rispens Seed, Seedex, Shamrock, Sunseeds, and Vilmorin. Plots were four rows wide and 27 feet long. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replicates. The onion seed was planted at 12 seeds per foot of row in single rows on beds spaced 22 in apart using four Almaco cone seeders mounted on a John Deere Model 71 Flexi Planter equipped with disc openers. On April 9, onion rows received 3.7 ounces of 'Lorsban 15G' per 1000 feet of row (0.82 lb ai/acre), and the soil surface was rolled. The soil surface was again rolled with hand rollers on April 14 because of crusting from rainfall. On May 17, alleys 4 feet wide were cut between plots, leaving plots 23 feet long. From May 18 through 22 the seedlings were hand thinned to a plant population of four plants per foot of row (3-in spacing between individual onion plants, or 95,040 plants/acre).

On May 29, 32 lb N/acre as urea was broadcast and incorporated by rain on May 30. One hundred pounds of N/acre as urea were sidedressed on June 4 and July 13. The trial was managed to avoid yield reductions from weeds, pests, and diseases (Table 1). Weeds were controlled with cultivations and low-rate herbicide applications as needed until lay-by. After lay-by the field was hand weeded as necessary. Thrips were controlled with four aerial applications of Warrior and Lannate. Fungal diseases were controlled with four fungicide applications including an application on July 5 following the July 4 hail storm.

Table 1. Pesticides and quantities (ai/acre) applied after onion emergence. Onion variety trial, Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Date Fungicides Herbicides Insecticides
May 23

Ridomil/Bravo 1.6 lb




June 2

Ridomil MZ Gold 0.58 lb

Goal 1.2 oz, Buctril 3.3 oz,

Poast 3.6


June 18

Goal 1.2 oz, Buctril 3.3 oz,

Poast 2.9 oz


June 25



Warrior 0.3 oz, Lannate LV 0.49 oz

July 5

Dithane DF 2.3 lb, Kocide 4.5 LF 6.6 oz



July 23

Warrior 0.3 oz, Lannate LV 0.49 oz

July 29

Warrior 0.3 oz, Lannate LV 0.49 oz

Aug. 24

Ridomil MZ Gold 1.5 lb


Warrior 0.3 oz, Lannate LV 0.49 oz

The trial was furrow irrigated as necessary to maintain soil water potential at 8-in depth above -20 kPa. Soil water potential was monitored by eight granular matrix sensors (GMS, Watermark Soil Moisture Sensors Model 200SS, Irrometer Co., Riverside, CA) installed below the onion row at 8-in depth. The last irrigation of the season was on September 5. Bulb maturity ratings for each plot were recorded on August 26, September 3, and September 17, as visual estimates of the percentage of dry leaf material in each plot, and percentage of bulbs with necks collapsed and leaves on the ground. Those percentages for each date were averaged for maturity ratings. Bolted onions were estimated as the number of bulbs in the 4-row plot on September 17.

The onion bulbs were lifted on September 17 to field-dry. Onions from the middle two rows of every plot were topped by hand on September 28 and placed into storage in wooden crates on September 29. In early October, the storage shed was heated long enough to achieve an internal onion bulb temperature at 1 cm depth of 90 0F, to reduce storage rot. The storage shed was managed to maintain an air temperature of approximately 34 0F.

Onions were graded out of storage January 5 -7, 1999. Bulbs were separated according to quality: bulbs without blemishes (No. 1s), split bulbs (No. 2s), neck rot (bulbs infected with the fungus Botrytis allii in the neck or side), plate rot (bulbs infected with the fungus Fusarium oxysporum), black mold (bulbs infected with the fungus Aspergillus niger), and bulbs with translucent rings. The No. 1 bulbs were graded according to diameter: small (< 2¼ in), medium (2¼ to 3 in), jumbo (3 to 4 in), and colossal (4 in and larger). Varietal differences were compared using ANOVA and least significant differences at the 5 percent probability level, LSD (0.05).

Results and Discussion

Crops suffered from suboptimal growing conditions in 1998. The growing season started out cooler and wetter than normal. The month of May had 4.55 in of precipitation compared to the 50-year mean of 1.02 in. May had 29 percent fewer and June had 18 percent fewer growing degree days (50 -86 0F) than the previous 10-year mean. A severe hail storm on July 4 resulted in close to 100 percent onion leaf loss. Plants were reduced to 2-in high, injured stubs. The months of July and August were hotter than normal. Weather station data recorded 11 days with maximum air temperatures of 100 0F or higher compared to the 50-year mean of 5 days. There were far more degree days in the above optimal range (86 -104 0F) in 1998 compared to the previous 8-year mean; 70 percent more in July and 29 percent more in August. The hot weather in July and August was suboptimal for onions especially for the regrowth of hail-damaged onions where most of the soil surface was unprotected from solar heating. Average onion yields at the Malheur Experiment Station were substantially lower in 1998 compared to 1996 and 1997 (Figure 1).

Varieties are listed by company in alphabetical order and ranked by bulb yield for each company's varieties for 1996, 1997, and 1998 (Tables 2, 3, and 4). The LSD (0.05) values at the bottom of each table should be considered when comparisons are made between varieties for yield and grade. Differences equal to or greater than the LSD (0.05) value for a column should exist before any variety is considered different from any other variety in the category compared in that column.

Total yield out of storage averaged only 306 cwt/acre in 1998 with a wide range of yield and grade (Table 4). Total yield out of storage ranged from 134 to 526 cwt/acre and colossal size onion yield ranged from 0 to 42 cwt/acre, depending on variety. Significant varietal differences were recorded in all size classes.

Decomposition in storage averaged 3 percent of total yield (Table 4). Neck rot averaged 2 percent, plate rot averaged 0.6 percent, and black mold averaged 0.4 percent. Losses to plate rot could have been greater than the numbers recorded because onions with this defect usually lose most of their weight before being graded out of storage. Bulbs with translucent rings averaged 1.3 percent. The number of bulbs with translucent rings could have been higher since only suspected bulbs were cut during grading. Split bulbs averaged 11.6 percent. Varietal differences in bulb quality in terms of percent of total yield were only significant for plate rot, translucent rings, and split bulbs (No. 2s). Bolting averaged 0.5 bolted onions out of approximately 368 onions in each 4-row plot. The variety with most bolting had only 4 per plot, or just over one percent.

Average total, marketable, and colossal yields were highest in 1996 and lowest in 1998 (Table 5). There was on average 61 percent total yield reduction in 1998 compared to 1996. Total yield in 1997 was 17 percent lower than in 1996.

Figure 1. Onion yield reduction related to hail and unfavorable weather compared to the previous two years averaged over the five top yielding varieties, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1998.

Table 2. 1996 performance data for experimental and commercial onion varieties. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Seed company

Variety

Bulb color

Total yield

Marketable yield by grade   Non-marketable yield
Maturity rating Bolters

Total

>4in

3-4in

2¼-3in

  Total rot Neck rot Plate rot Black mold

# 2s

Small

 

Aug 22

Aug 30

Sep 6

Sep 9

----------------- cwt/acre -----------------   ----- % of total yield ----- - cwt/acre-   ------ % ------ No.

American Takii

9003C

yellow

1131.5 1004.1 630.1 499.5 1.5   4.8 3.4 1.3 0.2 72.6 0.4   0.0 2.5 19.0 0.0

9003

yellow

988.2 852.1 376.9 605.6 5.7   9.4 7.6 1.7 0.2 43.2 0.0   0.0 0.5 5.0 0.6

ATX 5-96

yellow

893.2 852.0 308.8 581.6 2.8   2.1 0.6 1.6 0.0 22.2 0.0   2.0 6.0 15.5 0.4

ATX 5-89

yellow

868.6 813.7 351.4 513.8 3.5   3.2 1.1 2.0 0.0 28.2 0.0   1.5 3.0 12.5 1.4

Condor

yellow

818.2 769.7 225.3 591.3 1.2   4.4 0.1 4.1 0.1 13.2 0.5   13.5 22.0 44.0 0.8

Eagle

yellow

800.1 763.4 176.9 622.0 1.0   2.1 0.1 1.9 0.1 19.8 0.3   2.5 6.0 23.5 0.6

T-432

yellow

698.9 637.3 295.3 399.5 4.1   5.7 1.0 4.7 0.0 21.1 0.0   2.0 11.0 19.5 0.0

Frontier

yellow

503.1 482.4 18.1 467.3 12.7   3.5 0.0 3.5 0.0 8.4 4.9   63.9 75.0 88.5 0.0

Aristogene

Seville

yellow

1092.6 1037.7 493.0 597.3 2.4   3.8 1.7 2.1 0.0 13.3 0.0   5.8 11.5 30.0 3.4

El Charro

yellow

1070.7 1000.7 467.0 600.6 2.9   5.5 2.5 2.9 0.2 11.0 0.3   4.0 8.5 21.0 2.6

El Padre

yellow

1040.3 1007.7 478.6 559.3 1.8   2.3 0.7 1.3 0.3 10.3 0.7   0.5 2.5 16.0 2.6

Bravo

yellow

1014.8 947.5 460.5 552.0 1.4   3.8 1.2 2.7 0.0 29.4 1.0   5.5 10.0 20.5 3.4

Maritime

yellow

910.3 876.0 199.0 707.0 2.3   2.9 0.0 2.9 0.0 10.6 2.0   25.0 40.0 53.4 1.4

Envoy

yellow

880.8 830.2 249.5 627.6 3.8   2.8 0.3 2.5 0.0 25.4 0.0   33.0 42.5 52.4 1.6

Asgrow

Viper

yellow

885.2 805.8 241.8 640.1 2.8   5.8 1.5 4.3 0.0 28.3 0.7   29.0 39.5 49.9 0.0

Asgrow

Viper

yellow

885.2 805.8 241.7 640.1 2.8   5.8 1.5 4.3 0.0 28.3 0.7   29.0 39.5 49.9 0.0

Viceroy

yellow

807.0 773.6 155.4 645.4 5.8   1.9 0.0 1.9 0.0 18.6 0.4   21.5 38.0 51.5 0.0

Regiment

yellow

775.3 727.8 241.4 533.5 0.4   4.1 0.5 3.4 0.2 16.0 0.0   36.5 48.0 50.5 2.0

Fury

yellow

637.8 584.6 95.9 536.3 4.7   2.4 0.0 2.4 0.0 39.3 1.0   26.5 35.0 49.5 0.0

Bejo

Gladstone

white 765.9 733.5 101.6 653.6 9.7   2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 18.8 1.0   1.0 3.0 12.5 0.6

Altisimo

yellow

705.9 681.4 89.5 607.7 5.6   1.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 19.4 3.2   2.0 8.5 20.0 0.2

Daytona

yellow

703.9 676.8 92.5 603.0 6.7   1.2 0.1 1.0 0.0 20.6 1.7   1.5 4.5 11.0 0.6

Redwing

red 656.2 639.1 75.0 579.6 1.6   1.9 0.0 1.9 0.0 4.4 0.0   2.5 10.5 21.5 0.0

Tamara

yellow

609.3 584.3 16.7 585.2 5.5   4.1 0.0 4.1 0.0 2.4 2.0   22.5 46.5 60.3 0.0

Santana

yellow

533.8 504.4 34.2 493.3 6.3   4.0 0.0 4.0 0.0 8.2 0.0   22.5 38.5 55.0 0.0

Champion

PX 81892

red 498.1 454.4 120.9 368.4 5.4   6.3 0.0 5.9 0.4 15.6 3.3   10.5 13.0 18.5 0.0

Crookham

Sweet Amber

yellow

989.8 906.7 341.9 643.6 3.4   4.5 1.9 2.6 0.0 38.7 0.9   12.5 26.5 42.0 1.4

Celebrity

yellow

984.7 903.9 425.7 553.0 4.5   4.4 2.9 1.5 0.0 39.5 1.5   0.8 5.5 17.5 2.8

Sweet Perfection

yellow

969.7 899.5 438.8 528.1 1.8   3.0 0.5 2.4 0.0 42.1 1.0   11.5 17.5 30.0 1.4

Sueno

yellow

707.8 664.7 118.3 581.4 7.1   3.2 0.4 2.8 0.0 20.5 1.0   9.5 22.0 42.5 2.6

Ferry-Morse

FMX 2074

yellow

885.8 848.8 321.7 560.8 3.0   3.0 0.8 2.2 0.0 10.8 0.3   6.5 21.5 35.0 1.8

Caesar

yellow

885.4 853.6 230.9 650.9 3.5   2.5 0.7 1.8 0.0 9.6 0.0   3.0 10.5 31.5 1.4

Oro Grande

yellow

856.7 823.4 270.4 582.5 2.4   3.2 0.6 2.4 0.1 8.2 1.4   4.5 11.0 29.5 1.8

Augustus

yellow

838.2 783.6 249.1 588.1 1.0   4.8 1.7 3.0 0.1 14.4 0.0   2.0 5.5 13.5 2.2

Fabius

yellow

830.2 792.3 175.2 651.6 2.7   2.7 0.6 2.1 0.0 15.6 0.8   21.5 35.5 51.5 3.8

Harris Moran

Impact

yellow

597.9 566.1 25.7 566.3 5.5   1.8 0.0 1.8 0.0 21.9 0.4   47.0 54.0 67.3 1.0

White Ivory

white 492.2 422.2 6.6 468.5 14.6   1.4 0.1 1.2 0.0 65.6 2.5   12.0 16.5 34.5 0.2

Squire

yellow

477.9 436.8 36.0 431.2 10.2   5.4 0.3 5.1 0.0 15.8 0.5   35.0 48.5 56.5 0.0

Petoseed

Quest

yellow

939.4 882.7 579.2 359.4 0.9   4.6 1.6 3.0 0.0 14.3 0.0   2.0 4.5 20.0 1.0

Atlas

yellow

925.2 842.9 627.1 295.8 1.3   5.0 0.4 4.6 0.0 37.3 0.9   5.5 16.5 31.0 1.4

Vision

yellow

916.9 855.5 430.2 485.1 1.0   4.3 0.8 3.4 0.1 22.5 0.6   1.5 4.5 20.5 1.0

Pinnacle

yellow

855.4 841.8 190.6 660.8 2.4   1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 3.4 1.7   6.0 15.0 39.5 0.0

Apex

yellow

827.6 799.9 157.0 667.5 2.6   1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 16.5 0.6   2.5 5.5 24.0 0.0

Teton

yellow

778.3 733.5 188.3 589.1 0.6   3.9 0.3 3.6 0.0 15.2 0.3   15.0 27.0 47.5 3.4

Rio Colorado

6077

yellow

850.7 767.5 277.2 571.2 2.3   2.2 0.1 2.0 0.0 64.9 0.0   13.0 22.5 35.5 1.0

Challenge

yellow

845.7 774.2 262.3 581.3 2.1   3.5 0.3 3.2 0.0 42.0 0.0   13.5 21.5 39.5 1.8

Rio Seco

yellow

800.5 747.8 112.4 683.3 3.4   4.5 0.4 4.0 0.0 18.9 1.5   50.0 52.8 54.5 0.4

Discovery

yellow

732.5 676.0 155.7 566.7 9.8   4.0 0.7 3.3 0.0 27.6 0.3   26.5 38.0 44.5 0.6

RNX 10090

yellow

670.3 633.8 71.4 597.6 1.2   4.2 0.0 4.2 0.0 7.9 0.0   36.0 45.0 52.5 1.0

RCS 6171

yellow

654.6 578.1 112.7 536.3 3.7   6.3 0.2 5.7 0.4 36.8 1.9   44.0 47.4 51.9 1.0

RNX 10001

white 550.5 524.7 27.6 508.9 11.9   2.8 0.6 2.2 0.0 12.4 2.1   20.0 25.5 43.0 0.2

Rispens

Golden Security

yellow

1021.8 935.6 466.9 552.7 2.3   3.7 1.2 2.6 0.0 47.6 0.0   1.5 2.5 17.0 2.0

Victory

yellow

981.9 905.3 437.9 540.4 2.0   3.4 2.2 1.2 0.0 42.9 1.6   8.0 18.5 32.5 0.4

Wrangler

yellow

786.0 749.1 161.1 585.7 36.0   2.2 0.2 2.0 0.0 23.6 3.2   2.7 12.0 29.0 0.4

Scottseed

Great Scott

yellow

900.4 804.2 403.8 495.1 0.3   3.9 1.2 2.7 0.0 62.5 1.2   3.0 8.0 25.0 0.4

Shamrock

SSC 1992

yellow

787.8 725.2 165.3 614.1 7.3   3.0 0.8 2.2 0.0 39.8 1.1   8.0 18.0 27.5 0.6

Impala

yellow

751.2 646.5 108.9 636.5 4.5   4.5 0.2 4.0 0.3 72.6 1.4   46.5 52.0 56.5 0.0

SSC 3359

yellow

697.3 626.2 149.0 543.9 4.5   3.6 0.1 3.3 0.2 46.5 0.0   13.5 26.0 37.5 0.0

SSC 9983

yellow

628.7 590.9 101.1 524.9 2.8   3.4 0.0 3.4 0.0 17.1 0.0   19.5 37.0 51.0 2.2








































Sunseeds

SXO 1430

yellow 1060.6 1043.5 448.9 610.7 1.1   0.9 0.1 0.7 0.0 8.0 0.0   16.0 36.0 45.5 0.4

Vaquero

yelloww 996.3 964.5 335.8 656.7 3.2   3.0 1.6 1.4 0.0 2.2 0.6   2.5 5.5 26.5 0.6

Snow White

white 853.4 751.4 364.0 484.9 3.0   7.2 4.0 2.8 0.4 41.1 1.5   0.0 2.5 5.0 1.4

Bullring

yellow 834.3 782.1 170.7 661.1 2.4   5.9 0.2 5.7 0.0 5.1 0.1   32.5 49.3 53.9 6.2

Winner

yelloww 779.1 698.6 386.3 389.0 3.3   9.4 1.5 7.9 0.0 9.9 0.6   18.5 32.5 42.0 5.0

Tesoro

yellow 764.1 736.4 154.5 606.1 3.5   1.6 0.1 1.5 0.0 15.3 0.0   14.5 27.0 44.5 1.8

Sabroso

yelloww 744.2 714.4 98.6 639.3 4.5   2.2 0.0 2.2 0.0 15.5 1.8   5.5 22.0 46.0 0.0

Valiant

yellow 721.0 681.9 122.0 592.5 5.1   4.1 0.0 4.0 0.1 11.1 1.4   10.5 22.0 49.0 2.6

Blanco Duro

white 691.2 634.9 116.0 571.6 2.6   6.2 3.1 2.7 0.4 13.8 1.1   0.5 3.0 12.0 0.8

Mambo

red 604.0 559.7 68.7 524.5 8.1   3.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 29.1 2.6   2.0 7.5 15.5 0.0

Tango

red 493.5 468.6 18.1 465.3 7.1   3.7 0.0 3.7 0.0 8.7 3.0   13.0 24.0 40.0 0.0

Waldo Seeds

X 202

yellow 1003.7 883.4 385.4 614.9 3.5   9.6 7.2 2.5 0.0 23.5 0.0   1.4 1.5 12.0 2.8

X 201

yellow 948.9 797.1 402.1 545.8 1.1   12.3 7.4 4.9 0.0 33.4 0.0   1.5 8.5 18.5 2.8

Mean


  805.7 750.7 237.9 562.5 4.4   3.9 1.0 2.9 0.1 24.1 0.9   13.5 21.7 34.7 1.2

LSD (0.05)

 
73.5 84.4 81.0 101.5 10.3   3.9 3.0 3.3 0.3 19.4 2.3   8.1 8.7 9.2 0.8

Table 3. 1997 performance data for experimental and commercial onion varieties. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Seed

company

Onion

variety

Bulb

color

Total yield

Marketable yield by grade
Non-marketable yield
Maturity rating

Bolters

Total >4in 3-4in 2¼-3in
Total rot Neck rot Plate rot # 2s Small
Aug 22 Aug 29 Sep 5 Sep 9
---------------------- cwt/acre ----------------------   ---- % of total yield ---- --- cwt/acre ---
----------%--------- No.

American

Takii

9003C

yellow 943.7 861.2 424.2 427.2 9.8
0.7 0.7 0.0 74.3 1.1
5.8 20.8 43.0 0.0

T - 433

yellow 886.3 868.1 352.3 534.5 2.0
1.1 0.7 0.4 10.6 0.9
3.8 21.3 35.2 0.8

407B

yellow 656.4 642.8 162.5 472.8 7.5
0.9 0.8 0.1 5.0 2.2
21.7 38.6 59.9 0.0

Condor

yellow 650.6 634.3 81.6 543.4 9.3
1.2 0.1 1.1 8.9 0.0
53.7 60.5 80.1 0.2

T - 406

yellow 642.7 636.7 47.3 582.8 6.5
0.7 0.5 0.2 1.2 0.0
38.5 51.0 67.3 0.0

Aristogene

Seville

yellow 932.8 911.8 395.4 513.7 2.8
1.4 1.0 0.4 8.3 0.0
23.5 39.3 51.2 8.0

Bravo

yellow 930.8 887.7 368.9 514.9 3.9
2.0 1.9 0.1 24.7 0.3
28.3 45.8 53.4 6.8

Maritime

yellow 802.3 788.4 171.5 612.9 4.0
1.2 1.0 0.2 4.2 0.6
52.5 56.7 75.8 0.6

Envoy

yellow 679.3 659.3 80.0 568.9 10.3
1.7 0.6 1.1 7.0 1.0
50.6 56.5 66.7 0.0

Asgrow

Vega

yellow 813.6 792.8 259.2 526.7 6.8
0.5 0.1 0.4 15.3 0.9
43.0 50.1 59.3 2.6

Viper

yellow 717.8 701.6 111.8 580.3 9.5
1.9 1.5 0.4 2.0 0.7
51.9 55.4 66.7 0.6

Viceroy

yellow 692.1 668.9 136.1 522.8 10.1
0.9 0.6 0.3 14.3 2.6
49.5 54.3 66.5 0.0

XPH 15040

yellow 679.9 673.0 105.1 554.7 13.2
1.0 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.8
53.2 56.6 69.4 0.0

Regiment

yellow 665.4 652.3 90.7 552.1 9.6
1.4 0.3 1.1 3.4 0.7
55.8 58.1 70.3 0.8

Fury

yellow 504.1 479.0 24.7 432.5 21.9
2.3 1.5 0.8 10.0 3.6
51.4 60.1 80.2 0.0

Bejo

Castillo

yellow 716.0 631.1 117.0 508.1 6.0
0.5 0.5 0.0 81.3 0.0
0.0 3.3 7.4 0.4

Gladstone

white 638.1 600.2 61.4 524.8 14.0
3.1 2.8 0.3 14.3 2.9
27.3 39.1 53.3 0.2

Daytona

yellow 586.9 568.3 29.2 524.3 14.8
0.6 0.5 0.1 12.1 3.3
20.2 39.6 57.9 0.0

Altisimo

yellow 573.0 551.6 53.6 465.7 32.3
0.5 0.3 0.2 13.5 4.8
25.2 41.0 60.8 0.0

Redwing

red 521.7 512.2 19.7 477.3 15.2
1.0 0.0 1.0 2.3 2.4
37.5 48.7 65.4 0.0

Champion

PX 81892

red 500.8 477.8 32.2 415.5 30.1
2.0 1.2 0.8 8.7 4.5
48.0 66.1 86.7 0.0

Crookham

Sweet Perfection

yellow 846.0 824.1 265.1 553.6 5.5
0.8 0.6 0.2 15.1 0.2
38.6 48.3 55.6 0.4

Celebrity

yellow 810.2 772.7 243.5 522.0 7.2
1.2 0.8 0.4 26.9 1.1
25.7 38.8 53.0 2.8

XPH 95345

yellow 688.7 637.7 132.7 494.3 10.7
3.0 2.4 0.6 30.2 0.6
15.2 32.6 49.0 1.4

Sueno

yellow 582.6 568.7 61.7 467.6 39.5
1.4 0.8 0.6 3.1 3.0
45.7 53.7 71.6 0.4

Ferry-Morse

FMX 2031

yellow 797.9 780.2 304.6 469.5 6.0
1.7 0.8 0.9 3.7 1.4
21.2 36.0 53.5 6.6

FMX 2015

yellow 754.1 727.7 190.3 531.9 5.5
1.7 1.3 0.4 12.6 1.0
21.2 36.0 53.4 2.4

Harris Moran

HMX 4633

yellow 460.3 447.0 1.9 406.6 38.5
1.3 0.9 0.4 2.5 4.9
42.5 60.5 91.1 0.6

Impact

yellow 433.8 407.8 3.2 361.7 42.9
2.1 1.1 1.0 12.6 4.3
59.0 75.6 94.8 0.2









 



























Petoseed

Quest

yellow 895.3 884.0 430.2 450.3 3.4
1.1 0.5 0.6 1.7 0.0
41.0 46.9 53.2 2.2

Vision

yellow 838.5 825.6 276.2 544.8 4.6
1.1 0.7 0.4 3.7 0.0
25.0 34.9 53.6 0.6

Payette

yellow 715.7 703.6 146.6 548.0 9.0
1.1 0.9 0.2 2.3 1.9
45.7 47.9 55.7 0.0

Pinnacle

yellow 669.7 660.1 66.1 584.1 9.9
1.1 0.2 0.9 1.2 0.9
45.7 53.5 70.3 0.0

Apex

yellow 654.8 625.3 102.5 512.6 10.2
2.0 1.7 0.3 15.9 0.0
25.2 39.0 55.0 0.2

Teton

yellow 632.7 624.1 39.4 569.9 14.9
1.1 0.1 1.0 1.5 0.6
44.5 53.3 63.7 0.0

PX 67691

yellow 545.9 537.2 26.5 494.2 16.5
0.8 0.0 0.8 2.3 1.8
54.7 57.8 73.4 0.0

Rio Colorado

RNX-10020

yellow 860.3 827.0 318.2 504.0 4.8
1.4 0.9 0.5 20.6 0.6
33.2 49.5 55.0 6.4

RNX-10245

yellow 818.7 796.9 331.9 456.7 8.3
2.1 1.6 0.5 2.9 1.5
46.7 51.3 58.2 1.0

RNX-10161

yellow 802.9 776.4 351.7 417.6 7.1
1.3 1.1 0.2 14.3 1.2
28.7 43.8 55.1 2.0

RNX-10311

yellow 717.3 674.9 308.7 362.1 4.1
2.9 2.7 0.2 22.0 0.5
22.1 36.6 50.9 0.2

Rispens Seed

Goldstar

yellow 871.8 839.2 365.2 468.8 5.2
1.2 1.1 0.1 22.0 0.0
3.9 15.9 32.7 7.6
 

Superstar

yellow 847.9 827.1 297.4 523.7 6.1
1.0 0.6 0.4 11.7 0.6
27.1 35.2 50.1 5.2
 

Golden Security

yellow 734.5 680.5 176.7 493.5 10.4
2.5 2.2 0.3 36.4 0.3
22.5 37.2 52.0 0.4

Wrangler

yellow 585.2 566.6 85.4 449.5 31.8
0.4 0.2 0.2 12.8 3.5
28.7 47.3 63.2 0.0

Scottseed

Great Scott

yellow 801.6 749.8 232.1 509.7 8.1
1.6 0.7 0.9 38.6 1.2
24.7 41.6 54.9 0.4

Seedex

Tenshin

yellow 422.4 415.3 7.2 375.8 32.2
0.7 0.2 0.5 1.1 2.5
73.2 88.8 97.4 0.0

Shamrock

SSC 0377

yellow 627.3 573.9 62.7 499.3 11.9
0.6 0.4 0.2 47.0 2.6
49.6 55.3 62.2 0.0

VDH 89573

yellow 394.7 383.0 0.0 340.9 42.1
0.6 0.1 0.5 1.1 8.5
64.0 73.9 94.4 0.0

Sunseeds

Vaquero

yellow 737.5 727.2 155.4 565.3 6.5
0.8 0.7 0.1 3.5 0.0
44.0 52.2 59.6 0.8

Valiant

yellow 700.0 695.9 122.5 567.3 6.1
0.4 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.6
43.5 55.8 64.6 1.4

Tesoro

yellow 611.0 602.2 54.7 539.4 8.1
0.5 0.5 0.0 2.6 3.2
48.7 53.5 71.6 0.0

Sabroso

yellow 588.9 584.1 24.5 545.2 14.4
0.4 0.1 0.3 0.8 1.9
29.8 43.4 66.4 0.0

Mambo

red 478.1 443.5 8.4 398.2 36.9
1.4 0.1 1.3 21.4 6.8
48.8 62.5 85.0 0.0

Flamenco

red 409.0 393.5 0.0 352.9 40.6
1.1 0.4 0.7 3.4 7.5
64.0 82.9 93.2 0.0

Tango

red 381.5 356.7 5.6 311.2 39.9
3.5 1.9 1.6 5.7 5.5
60.0 81.7 92.7 0.0

Vilmorin

Santos

yellow 652.1 586.7 88.2 485.4 13.1
0.6 0.2 0.4 58.9 2.6
37.7 47.1 62.4 0.0

Lorenzo

yellow 492.2 456.6 6.2 422.9 27.4
1.0 0.2 0.8 22.5 8.0
52.9 59.6 77.5 0.0

Mean

676.4 651.6 147.7 490.5 14.6
1.3 0.8 0.5 14.1 2.0
37.7 49.0 63.6 1.1

LSD (0.05)

53.0 57.3 79.3 76.6 9.3
3.8 1.2 0.8 15.1 3.0
10.2 9.0 6.7 2.3

Table 4. 1998 performance data for experimental and commercial onion varieties. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Seed company

Onion variety

Bulb color

Total yield

Marketable yield by grade
Non-marketable yield
Maturity rating Bolters
'

Total

>4in.

3-4in.

2¼-3in.


Total rot Neck rot Plate rot Black mold Translucent rings

No. 2s

Small


Aug 26

Sep 3

Sep 17

Sep 17

---------------- cwt/acre ----------------
-------- % of total yield ------------ -- cwt/acre --
----------%--------- No.

American Takii

T-434

yellow 420.6 353.2 4.2 312.7 36.3
2.0 1.2 0.2 0.5 1.2 51.5 2.4
8.7 12.5 43.0 0.0

T -433

yellow 367.6 352.5 2.3 309.2 41.1
0.8 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.2 7.0 4.5
8.7 15.0 39.0 0.4

Eagle

yellow 268.1 250.6 0.7 123.0 126.9
1.4 0.8 0.1 0.4 0.9 0.5 11.0
36.0 46.0 78.0 0.0

T-439

yellow 267.2 237.8 0.0 127.5 110.2
3.1 1.3 0.7 1.1 2.3 3.4 11.3
38.0 48.0 74.0 0.2

T-441

yellow 160.0 109.5 0.0 29.0 80.5
2.8 2.1 0.3 0.4 1.1 2.5 41.8
80.0 89.0 94.0 0.0

Aristogene

Bravo

yellow 526.4 462.1 42.0 372.4 47.6
3.1 2.7 0.2 0.2 1.4 35.9 4.4
9.0 14.2 43.0 3.4

Seville

yellow 409.6 378.1 14.3 333.9 29.9
3.7 2.6 0.8 0.3 1.3 7.6 3.4
11.0 17.0 53.0 0.6

Maritime

yellow 295.9 269.0 0.0 170.5 98.5
2.7 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.8 6.8 9.8
66.0 74.0 89.0 0.2

Envoy

yellow 274.3 236.3 0.6 150.0 85.7
4.3 2.2 0.7 1.5 2.0 4.5 15.4
64.0 72.0 84.0 0.4

Asgrow

Vega

yellow 365.9 337.0 1.0 289.8 46.1
2.8 1.7 0.8 0.3 1.3 11.4 2.3
40.0 47.0 67.0 4.0

XPH15225

yellow 354.4 311.5 8.2 267.3 36.0
4.3 3.4 0.5 0.4 3.8 9.8 4.5
22.0 31.0 51.0 1.0

Viper

yellow 324.8 295.2 2.1 219.9 73.3
3.1 2.2 0.4 0.5 1.4 7.4 7.9
56.0 62.0 83.0 0.0

Regiment

yellow 304.7 265.5 0.6 181.8 83.1
3.9 3.1 0.1 0.7 1.8 9.5 13.0
59.0 68.0 81.0 0.0

XPH15113

yellow 264.1 230.4 1.5 155.5 73.5
2.5 2.0 0.3 0.3 0.6 13.3 11.9
36.0 48.0 74.0 0.0

XPH15040

yellow 234.6 188.7 0.0 92.9 95.8
5.7 2.6 1.0 2.1 4.4 3.2 17.5
67.0 72.0 87.0 3.6

XPH15042

yellow 200.0 175.7 0.0 80.5 95.2
2.7 1.4 1.1 0.2 1.5 0.5 15.4
60.0 69.0 90.0 0.4

Bejo

Legend

yellow 318.9 278.3 0.0 217.8 60.5
1.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.2 27.5 8.6
31.0 36.0 69.0 0.0

Gladstone

white 314.5 264.7 5.3 176.6 82.8
2.3 1.8 0.4 0.1 1.2 22.0 16.3
13.0 20.0 54.0 0.2

Daytona

yellow 278.3 256.9 0.0 158.4 98.5
0.8 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 11.4 7.0
20.5 26.0 63.0 0.2

Redwing

red 264.6 247.7 0.0 152.9 94.7
1.1 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.4 7.2 5.2
40.0 47.0 70.0 0.0

Festival

yellow 196.0 167.1 1.7 67.3 98.1
1.6 1.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 7.2 19.0
66.0 74.0 89.0 0.0

Champion

Flare

yellow 212.4 176.9 0.0 57.3 119.6
2.6 2.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 9.7 19.9
53.0 59.0 82.0 0.0

Crookham

Zorro

yellow 419.0 379.6 16.0 330.4 33.3
1.4 0.9 0.5 0.0 1.6 23.6 3.0
8.9 16.0 50.0 1.2

Sweet Perfection

yellow 381.9 349.7 3.9 308.2 37.6
1.7 1.6 0.1 0.0 1.4 15.6 4.4
25.0 36.0 61.0 0.0

Sueno

yellow 206.7 159.6 0.0 50.8 108.8
2.5 1.8 0.5 0.2 2.0 8.9 28.7
50.0 57.0 76.0 0.4

D. Palmer

DPS 1062

yellow 450.9 371.7 27.0 320.4 24.2
10.1 8.5 0.7 0.9 3.3 13.1 2.8
4.7 10.5 36.0 0.8

DPS 1064

yellow 392.0 316.8 16.2 256.7 43.8
5.8 4.0 1.2 0.6 2.8 34.2 5.7
2.1 6.4 29.0 1.4

DPS 1022

yellow 195.5 139.5 0.0 74.4 65.1
3.4 2.0 1.2 0.2 0.8 23.6 24.7
45.0 54.0 76.0 0.6

Dorsing

Harvest Moon

yellow 366.3 324.8 27.2 266.9 30.7
2.8 2.0 0.7 0.0 2.5 19.1 3.3
14.5 26.0 50.0 1.0

Red October

red 141.5 82.5 0.0 10.4 72.1
5.3 3.9 0.5 1.0 0.7 17.6 32.7
75.0 88.0 91.0 0.0





















Harris Moran

.

FMX 2015

yellow 395.8 351.9 4.1 301.2 46.5
5.4 4.3 0.2 0.8 3.6 5.2 2.1
17.5 25.0 59.0 3.0

FMX 2031

yellow 387.3 369.6 12.0 308.3 49.3
1.2 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.8 5.7 4.4
12.5 17.0 52.0 0.2

Petoseed

Quest

yellow 425.9 401.0 12.9 371.2 16.8
2.2 1.3 0.8 0.1 2.6 2.6 1.8
24.5 39.0 69.0 0.0

Vision

yellow 425.3 397.2 5.8 354.3 37.1
2.2 1.7 0.3 0.1 1.8 8.8 2.1
18.0 24.0 58.0 0.0

Teton

yellow 312.9 289.3 0.0 218.9 70.4
3.1 1.1 1.5 0.6 0.8 3.7 7.3
42.0 53.0 83.0 2.8

Apex

yellow 312.2 281.9 2.1 202.9 76.8
2.1 1.7 0.3 0.1 0.4 13.2 9.3
25.0 33.0 62.0 0.0

Vantage

yellow 277.9 265.5 0.0 195.3 70.2
1.0 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.5 1.4 6.8
66.0 70.0 86.0 0.0

Pinnacle

yellow 259.9 237.9 0.0 140.7 97.2
1.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 5.0 13.7
58.0 65.0 85.0 0.0

Ember

red 173.9 121.9 4.1 54.2 63.6
5.3 2.6 2.3 0.4 0.1 19.7 23.4
61.0 63.0 81.0 0.0

Rio Colorado

Rio Rita

yellow 346.9 309.6 4.0 257.3 48.3
5.0 3.1 1.0 0.9 1.8 8.3 5.4
40.5 53.0 77.0 1.6

Rio Dulce

yellow 242.2 198.6 1.2 121.1 76.2
2.7 1.9 0.6 0.2 1.4 13.8 19.5
52.0 56.0 75.0 0.2

Rispens Seed

Ringstar

yellow 452.9 408.0 27.2 339.7 41.1
1.2 0.8 0.3 0.0 1.5 30.7 2.3
14.5 21.0 48.0 0.8

Wrangler

yellow 449.7 403.3 25.5 331.0 46.8
3.0 2.7 0.3 0.0 1.5 24.5 1.4
9.0 15.5 49.0 1.0

Superstar

yellow 419.0 389.3 19.9 335.5 34.0
2.1 1.8 0.2 0.1 1.3 11.7 3.8
16.0 23.0 50.0 0.8

Seedex

NN91

yellow 244.8 198.9 0.0 102.1 96.8
5.3 3.5 1.8 0.1 2.8 6.1 18.9
58.0 64.0 83.0 0.0

Shamrock

SSC0272

yellow 259.6 217.7 0.6 126.9 90.2
1.3 0.8 0.3 0.2 1.2 24.6 10.7
43.0 54.0 74.0 0.0

SSC0241

yellow 240.9 172.7 0.0 97.2 75.5
3.7 3.0 0.5 0.2 1.7 42.7 12.4
36.0 44.0 70.0 0.0

SSC1098

yellow 235.0 191.6 0.0 97.7 93.9
4.2 2.9 0.2 1.2 3.1 8.9 17.5
58.0 67.0 83.0 0.2

Sunseeds

Torero*

yellow 424.8 400.9 11.5 342.3 47.1
0.9 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.5 9.4 8.4
13.1 22.5 55.0 0.2

Vaquero

yellow 387.5 367.0 1.5 319.7 45.9
2.3 13.6 0.3 1.9 1.0 4.9 2.7
19.5 31.0 68.0 0.2

Valiant

yellow 304.2 285.4 3.4 204.0 78.1
1.0 0.5 0.4 0.0 1.4 1.8 9.3
53.0 61.0 83.0 0.8

Tesoro

yellow 295.3 270.3 1.3 156.0 113.1
1.9 1.1 0.5 0.3 0.9 7.5 9.2
47.0 56.0 78.0 0.0

Sabroso

yellow 230.0 206.1 0.0 95.7 110.4
1.1 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.7 4.1 15.5
41.0 52.0 78.0 0.0

Mambo

red 199.6 151.4 0.0 49.8 101.6
2.5 1.8 0.7 0.0 0.1 22.5 20.4
52.0 57.0 80.0 0.0

Tango

red 179.8 138.7 6.7 85.5 46.4
5.6 3.2 2.0 0.5 0.1 8.6 23.2
71.0 81.0 92.0 0.0

Flamenco

red 134.4 78.6 0.0 17.8 60.8
4.3 3.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 9.3 41.4
75.0 83.0 90.0 0.0

Vilmorin

Santos

yellow 344.9 218.8 0.0 164.4 54.4
1.9 0.9 0.8 0.1 0.8 111.8 5.2
48.0 57.0 79.9 0.0

Lorenzos

yellow 217.0 184.9 0.0 80.7 104.2
1.3 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.5 14.4 13.9
70.0 76.0 97.0 0.0

Mean


  306.1 266.8 5.5 192.0 69.3
3.0 2.0 0.6 0.4 1.3 14.6 11.6
38.8 46.6 70.2 0.5

LSD (0.05)

    54.7 55.1 8.6 55.3 26.0   NS NS 1.11 NS 1.8 10.8 8.5   9.6 8.6 7.3 1.2

*formerly SXO1436

Table 5. Yield and storage rot for onion varieties in 1996 -1998. Yields in 1998 were substantially lower due to severe hail on July 4 and other unfavorable weather related factors. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR,1998.

Seed company

Variety

Bulb color

1996
1997
1998
Total yield

Marketable

Colossal

Storage rot
Total yield

Marketable

Colossal

Storage rot
Total yield

Marketable

Colossal

Storage rot
---------- cwt/acre ---------- %
---------- cwt/acre ---------- %
---------- cwt/acre ---------- %

American Takii

Eagle

yellow 800.1 763.4 176.9 2.1
642.7 636.7 47.3 0.8
268.1 250.6 0.7 1.4

Aristogene

Bravo

yellow 1014.8 947.5 460.4 3.8
930.8 887.7 368.9 2.0
526.4 462.1 42.0 3.1

Envoy

yellow 880.8 830.2 249.4 2.8
679.3 659.3 80.0 1.8
274.3 236.3 0.6 4.3

Maritime

yellow 910.3 876.0 199.0 2.9
802.3 788.4 171.5 1.2
295.9 269.0 0.0 2.6

Seville

yellow 1092.6 1037.7 493.0 3.8
932.8 911.9 395.4 1.5
409.6 378.1 14.3 3.7

Asgrow

Regiment

yellow 775.3 727.8 241.4 4.1
665.4 652.3 90.7 1.4
304.7 265.5 0.6 3.9

Viper

yellow 885.2 805.8 241.7 5.8
717.8 701.6 111.8 1.9
324.8 295.3 2.1 3.1

Bejo

Gladstone

white 765.9 733.5 101.6 2.0
638.1 600.2 61.4 3.2
314.4 264.7 5.3 2.3

Redwing

red 656.2 639.0 75.0 1.9
521.7 512.2 19.7 1.0
264.6 247.7 0.0 1.1

Daytona

yellow 703.9 676.8 92.5 1.2
586.9 568.3 29.2 0.6
278.3 256.9 0.0 0.8

Crookham

Sweet Perfection

yellow 969.7 899.5 438.8 3.0
846.0 824.1 265.1 0.8
381.9 349.7 3.9 1.7

Sueno

yellow 707.8 664.7 118.3 3.2
582.6 568.7 61.7 1.4
206.7 159.6 0.0 2.5

Petoseed

Pinnacle

yellow 855.4 841.8 190.6 1.4
669.7 660.1 66.1 1.1
259.9 237.9 0.0 1.2

Teton

yellow 778.3 733.5 188.3 3.9
632.7 624.1 39.4 1.2
312.9 289.3 0.0 3.1

Vision

yellow 916.9 855.5 430.2 4.3
838.5 825.6 276.2 1.1
425.3 397.2 5.8 2.2

Apex

yellow 827.6 799.9 157.0 1.4
654.8 625.3 102.5 2.1
312.2 281.9 2.1 2.1

Quest

yellow 939.4 882.7 579.2 4.6
895.3 884.0 430.2 1.1
425.9 401.0 12.9 2.2

Rispens Seed

Wrangler

yellow 786.0 749.1 161.1 2.2
585.2 566.6 85.4 0.4
449.7 403.3 25.5 3.0

Sunseeds

Tango

red 493.4 468.6 18.1 3.7
381.5 356.7 5.6 3.5
179.8 138.7 6.7 5.6

Sabroso

yellow 744.2 714.4 98.6 2.1
588.9 584.0 24.4 0.4
230.0 206.1 0.0 1.1

Mambo

red 604.0 559.7 68.7 3.0
478.1 443.5 8.4 1.4
199.6 151.4 0.0 2.5

Vaquero

yellow 996.3 964.5 335.8 3.0
737.5 727.2 155.4 0.9
387.5 367.0 1.5 2.3

Tesoro

yellow 764.1 736.4 154.5 1.6
611.0 602.2 54.7 0.5
295.3 270.3 1.3 1.9

Valiant

yellow 721.0 681.9 122.0 4.1
700.0 695.9 122.5 0.4
304.1 285.4 3.4 0.9

Mean


816.2 774.6 224.7 3.0
680.0 662.8 128.1 1.3
318.0 286.0 5.4 2.4

LSD (0.05) Variety within years

73.5 84.4 81.0 3.9
53.0 57.3 79.3 1.5
54.7 55.1 8.6 NS

LSD (0.05) Mean between Years






41.1 43.0 52.2 0.6




LSD (0.05) Variety between Years





  56.3 58.0 57.1 NS