Sugar beet variety Trial results

Clinton C. Shock, Eric P. Eldredge, and Monty Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, Oregon, 1999

Introduction

Sugar beet seed companies, the beet growers associations, and the Amalgamated Sugar Co. have cooperated with OSU for many years to test sugar beets at the Malheur Experiment Station. Commercial cultivars and experimental lines of sugar beets were evaluated to identify lines with high sugar yields and root quality. A joint seed advisory committee consisting of grower association and industry representatives evaluates the performance data for the varieties over several years and locations. The committee restricts planting to only those varieties meeting established industry standards.

Procedures

Twenty-two commercial cultivars and 29 experimental lines (including check cultivars) of sugar beets were evaluated in separate trials conducted at the Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, Oregon. Sugar beets were planted in Owyhee silt loam where winter wheat had been grown the previous year. Fields were plowed in the fall of 1998, bedded on 22-in rows, and fumigated with 20 gal/acre of Telone C-17 on November 6, 1998. The March 4 soil test results in the first foot of soil were 2 ppm of nitrate-N and 6 ppm of ammonium-N, and in the second foot were 3 ppm of nitrate-N and 5 ppm of ammonium-N. Extractable phosphorus was 28 ppm, and exchangeable Zn was 0.9 ppm. Soil pH was 7.6 and soil organic matter was 1.2 percent. On April 1, Nortron SC herbicide was applied at 6 pints per acre and incorporated using a spike-tooth bed harrow before planting.

The seed for both trials was planted on April 2 with cone-seeders mounted on a John Deere model 71 flexi-planter equipped with disc openers. Each entry was replicated eight times in a randomized complete block experimental design. Each plot was four rows wide and 22 ft long with 5-ft alleys separating plots. Approximately 12 viable seeds/ft of row were planted in each plot row. On April 6, the furrows were corrugated, and Counter 15G was applied in a band over the row at 6 oz/1,000 ft of row. The sugar beets were furrow-irrigated for uniform seedling emergence. The sugar beets were hand-thinned May 21-22 to achieve 6.6-in spacing between plants. On April 30, Betamix Progress was applied at 1.13 pt/acre, in a tank mix with Poast at 1 pint per acre. The sugar beets were sidedressed with urea to apply 230 lb N/acre on May 27.

Powdery mildew was controlled with 30 lb/acre of sulfur dust applied on July 3, another 30 lb/acre applied on August 4, and Super 6 sulfur plus Lannate applied on August 30, all by airplane.

Sugar beets from the commercial cultivars were harvested on October 12-13, and those from the experimental trial were harvested on October 14-15. The foliage was removed with a flail beater, and the crowns were clipped with rotating scalping knives. Beets from the two center rows of each four-row plot were dug with a single-row, wheel-type lifter harvester, and all roots in each 22 ft of row were weighed. Root yields were corrected by 5 percent tare. A sample of eight beets was taken from each of the harvested rows and analyzed by Amalgamated Sugar, Nyssa tare lab for percentage of sucrose (Sug), pulp nitrate nitrogen, and conductivity (Cond). The percent extraction was calculated using the formula:

Ext = 250 + ((1255.2*Cond) - (15000*Sug) - 6185)/Sug*(98.66-7.845*Cond).

Varietial differences were calculated using ANOVA and Fisher's protected least significant differences test at the 5 percent level, LSD (0.05). Beet performance in each trial was compared with the established commercial varieties ACH 211, Beta 8422, HM Owyhee, and HM PM21. Cultivar performance was analyzed statistically and ranked by recoverable sugar within each company's entries.

Results

The 1999 trials suffered stand losses from unfavorable weather conditions for seedling emergence and pigeon and pheasant predation of seedlings, resulting in more variable stand than what is ideal. The damage was most severe in the seventh and eighth replicates, which were eliminated from consideration in the statistical analyses.

The commercial cultivars trial averaged 17.99 percent sucrose, with a range of root yield from 45 to 33 ton/acre (Table 1). Yields of estimated recoverable sugar from commercial cultivars ranged from a high of 13,800 lb/acre to a low of 10,600 lb/acre, with a trial mean of 12,700 lb/acre of sugar. Beta 8220, ACH Tomcat, HM Gem, HM Oasis, ACH Mustang, Beta 4035R, HM Owyhee, HM Dillon, HM Emblem, HH120, and HM Sierra were among the top yielding commercial cultivars, based on estimated recoverable sugar per acre.

Root tonnage among the experimental lines ranged up to 50 ton/acre, after 5 percent tare deduction (Table 2). The experimental lines' sucrose percentage averaged 18.12. Yield of recoverable sugar from the experimental lines ranged from 15,200 lb/acre to a low of 11,900 lb/acre, with an entry mean of 13,100 lb/acre of sugar. HM2982, HM1642, Seedex 1514, and 97HX706 were among the top yielding experimental cultivars, based on estimated recoverable sugar per acre.

Table 1. Root yields, sugar yields, and root quality from sugar beet lines entered as commercial lines at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, Oregon, 1999.
Variety Root yield Sugar Gross sugar Conduct. Extraction Est. Rec. Est. Rec.
  ton/acre lb/acre mmho lb/ton lb/acre
American Crystal              
ACH Tomcat 44.0 18.03 15,800 0.63 86.79 313 13,700
ACH Mustang 42.0 17.88 15,000 0.68 86.07 308 12,900
ACH Crystal211 38.8 18.39 14,300 0.58 87.50 322 12,500
Betaseed              
Beta 8220 45.3 17.61 15,900 0.66 86.25 304 13,800
Beta 4035R 43.0 17.80 15,300 0.66 86.30 307 13,200
Beta 8919 38.9 18.87 14,700 0.66 86.49 326 12,700
Beta 8348 41.6 17.60 14,600 0.63 86.70 305 12,700
Beta 8757 40.2 18.19 14,600 0.68 86.14 313 12,600
Beta 8118 39.7 18.12 14,400 0.65 86.49 313 12,400
Beta 8468 39.6 17.61 13,900 0.68 86.04 303 12,000
Beta 8422 38.4 18.07 13,900 0.72 85.56 309 11,900
Beta 4470R 33.4 18.42 12,300 0.70 85.94 317 10,600
Hilleshog Mono Hy              
HM Gem 44.5 17.64 15,700 0.62 86.85 306 13,600
HM Oasis 42.3 18.22 15,400 0.57 87.61 319 13,500
HM Owyhee 41.9 17.98 15,100 0.57 87.56 315 13,200
HM Dillon 41.8 17.67 14,800 0.56 87.60 310 12,900
HM Emblem 40.7 17.95 14,600 0.51 88.24 317 12,900
HM Sierra 40.7 18.06 14,700 0.62 86.92 314 12,800
HM Canyon 41.5 17.67 14,700 0.66 86.31 305 12,700
HM PM21 39.0 18.07 14,100 0.58 87.41 316 12,300
Holly Hybrids              
HH120 41.0 18.16 14,900 0.70 85.92 312 12,800
Seedex              
SX Blazer 35.7 17.80 12,700 0.68 85.74 305 10,900
               
Mean 40.6 17.99 14,600 0.635 86.66 311.8 12,700
LSD (0.05) 3.3 0.37 1,140 0.038 0.55 7.5 1,030

Table 2. Root yields, sugar yields, and root quality from sugar beet lines entered as experimental lines at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, Oregon, 1999.
Variety Root Yield Sugar Gross sugar Conduct. Extraction Est. Rec. Est. Rec.
  ton/acre % lb/acre mmho % lb/ton lb/acre
American Crystal              
ACH211 39.9 18.49 14,800 0.57 87.62 324 12,900
ACH9906 40.5 18.11 14,700 0.63 86.71 314 12,700
ACH9901 38.9 18.62 14,500 0.61 87.11 324 12,600
Betaseed              
Beta5KJ5017 42.9 18.39 15,800 0.65 86.57 318 13,700
Beta8570 41.4 18.68 15,500 0.68 86.28 322 13,300
Beta7KJ5109 41.2 18.18 15,000 0.60 87.12 317 13,000
BetaKJ5073 40.7 18.09 14,700 0.70 85.84 311 12,700
Beta8422 39.9 18.11 14,400 0.69 85.57 310 12,400
Beta7CG7015 39.2 18.21 14,300 0.67 86.22 314 12,300
Beta5CG7347 38.1 18.29 13,900 0.59 87.35 320 12,200
Beta7CG7022 38.3 18.38 14,000 0.66 86.46 318 12,100
Hilleshog Mono Hy              
HM2982 50.4 17.50 17,500 0.65 86.39 301 15,200
HM1642 44.0 18.56 16,400 0.59 87.42 325 14,300
HM2980 44.9 17.70 15,900 0.71 85.63 303 13,600
HM PM21 42.3 18.11 15,300 0.57 87.59 317 13,400
HM Owyhee 42.8 17.96 15,400 0.59 87.21 313 13,400
HM2930 42.6 18.29 15,300 0.61 87.64 314 13,400
HM2931 41.3 18.34 15,200 0.56 87.65 321 13,300
HM2932 44.5 17.82 15,200 0.61 86.85 297 13,200
HM PM15 40.4 18.16 14,700 0.57 87.56 318 12,900
HM2981 37.2 18.54 13,800 0.63 86.78 322 12,000
Holly Hybrids              
97HX706 43.7 18.48 16,200 0.60 87.28 323 14,100
99HX905 42.9 18.07 15,500 0.62 86.93 314 13,500
99HX902 44.8 17.32 15,500 0.62 86.73 300 13,400
98HX802 44.8 17.26 15,300 0.67 86.01 295 13,200
99HX901 40.7 18.33 14,900 0.65 86.52 317 12,900
Seedex              
SX1514 45.1 17.87 16,100 0.50 88.43 316 14,200
SX1515 41.9 17.80 14,900 0.57 87.47 311 13,000
SX1513 38.7 17.67 13,600 0.55 87.71 308 12,000
               
Mean 41.9 18.12 15,100 0.617 86.92 314.1 13,100
LSD (0.05) 3.4 0.29 1,240 0.049 0.69 9.4 1,070