Malheur Experiment Station (MES) provides one location for the statewide cereal grain variety trials that are planted at several sites across Oregon every year. The MES location provides a medium-length growing season, furrow-irrigated site for comparing cereal grain variety performance. Plant breeders gain information on the field performance of advanced lines in varied production regions. Growers can compare yields of newly released varieties to the current standards, and also see how some of the varieties in different market classes of wheat, barley, and triticale perform in our locality.
2000 Winter Grain Variety Trials
The grain trials followed onions, the field was disked and preplant fertilizer N at 50 lb/acre was broadcast. The soil was deep ripped, plowed, and groundhogged to prepare the seedbed. The field was corrugated into 30-inch rows. Seeds were planted October 9, 1999 with a Kincaid plot seeder, then the field was re-corrugated, and irrigated for 24 hours on October 19 for uniform emergence. Varieties planted in the winter cereal trials included 7 club wheats, 1 durum wheat, 4 hard white winter wheats, 13 soft white winter wheats, and 3 triticales. Seed was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. 'Stephens' was also planted with no seed treatment, and with only the Raxil fungicide treatment.
Grain was planted at a rate of 30 live seeds/ft2, and 'Stephens' was also planted at 20, 30, and 40 live seeds/ft2, which corresponds to a seeding rate of 111, 166, and 221 lb/acre. Five six-row barleys and one two-row barley were treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide and planted at 30 live seeds/ft2. In late February, 100 lb N/acre was applied by airplane. Plots were 5 x 20 ft, the winter wheat and triticale trial was replicated three times, and the winter barley trial was replicated four times. Broadleaf weeds were controlled in winter trials with Bronate at 1qt/acre applied April 4, 2000. The field was furrow irrigated for 24 hours on April 6, May 3, and June 6.
2000 Spring Grain Variety Trials
The spring grain trials were planted in the same field alongside the winter grain trials, and had the same field preparation and fertilization. The field was corrugated into 60-inch beds and seeds of varieties were planted with an MES fabricated plot seeder on March 28, 2000. Nine hard red spring wheat varieties, 6 hard white spring wheat varieties, 17 soft white spring wheat varieties, and 2 triticales were planted. In the spring barley trial, five two-row malting varieties, five two-row feed varieties, three six-row feed varieties, one two-row dual use feed or malting variety, and two hooded forage barley varieties were planted. Seed of all spring barleys was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. Plots were replicated three times in both the spring wheat and spring barley trials. The March 29, 2000 soil test showed 139 lb N/acre in the top 2 ft of soil, 31 ppm extractable P, 395 ppm K, 1.7 percent organic matter and pH 6.8. The field was re-corrugated on 30-inch rows on March 29 and received the first irrigation on April 1. Broadleaf weeds were controlled in spring trials with Bronate at 1 qt/acre applied May 15. The field was furrow irrigated for 24 hours on April 24, May 3, and June 6.
Alleys 3.3 ft wide were cut with a sicklebar mower on June 28. Grain samples were harvested in the winter cereal trials on July 19, and in the spring cereal trials on July 21 by cutting each plot with a Hege plot combine. All grain samples from both the winter and spring variety trials were hauled to Pendleton on July 25, and from there to the Oregon State University Cereals Lab at Corvallis for cleaning, moisture determination, test weight, and protein content analyses. Data from all locations of the statewide cereal trials were posted on the internet at www.css.orst.edu/cereals as soon as they were completed.
At the Malheur Experiment Station in 2000 the spring weather was dry and cool, followed by a very warm summer, without the typical evening windstorms, and with no hailstorms; consequently all the cereal trials grew very well, with very little lodging.
The highest yield in the spring wheat and triticale trial was 114 bu/acre yield by 'Challis', a soft white variety with 9.9 percent protein (Table 1). 'Whitebird', 'IDO526', 'Penewawa' at the standard seeding rate, 'Zak', `IDO525', 'ML037A(5-2)', and 'Wawawai' all had yields that did not significantly differ from 'Challis'. The hard red market class high yield was 'OR4880189' at 106 bu/acre and 11.7 percent protein. Similar in yield was 'Iona'. None of the hard reds attained 14 percent protein content. Hard white spring wheat top yield was 111 bu/acre for both 'IDO377S' and 'IDO533', with 'Winsome' and 'OR4920311' yielding almost as much. Protein among the hard white spring wheats ranged from 10.1 to 11.4 percent.
Spring barley yield reached 6,014 lb/acre for the two-row feed variety 'WA9504-94' (Table 2). The hooded varieties yields were very low, but these are forage barleys that would not be grown specifically for their grain yield, except for seed production.
The top yielding winter wheat was 'Malcolm', a soft white variety, at 158 bu/acre (Table 3). 'Rod', 'OR939526', and 'Weatherford' were the other soft white winter wheat varieties that yielded well. 'Stephens' at standard, low, and high seeding rates, 152, 153, and 150 bu/acre, respectively, did not yield significantly different from 'Madsen', nor did a 50/50 mix of 'Madsen' and 'Stephens'. 'Stephens' seed treated with the Raxil fungicide, but without the Gaucho insecticide seed treatment, yielded 137 bu/acre, significantly less than 'Madsen'. 'Boundary' hard red winter wheat yielded only 128 bu/acre with 10.5 percent protein. 'Rhode' club wheat yielded 142 bu/acre, with 'Hiller', 'Bruehl', and 'Temple' not significantly different. 'Edwin', a club wheat, and 'IDO550', a soft white, had 47 and 63 percent lodging, respectively, which contributed to their low yields. 'Alzo' triticale yielded 157 bu/acre, and 'Bogo' 149 bu/acre, significantly higher than 'Celia', at 111 bu/acre.
None of the winter or spring hard red or hard white wheat varieties in these trials met the minimum standard of 14 percent protein the hard wheats require for acceptable milling and baking quality in their customary end uses. Consequently, they would sell at a lower price. Split applications of nitrogen fertilizer, or an application of nitrogen at anthesis (the beginning of flowering), have not reliably increased hard wheat protein levels in irrigated cropping systems to 14 percent and above. Hard wheats grown without irrigation usually have acceptable protein content, but the low yields typical of dryland systems would be unacceptable for growers in our area, compared to the productivity of soft wheats.
The highest yields in the winter barley variety trial were 'Strider', at 5,416 lb/acre, 'Kold', not treated with Raxil fungicide seed treatment, and 'Scio' (Table 4). 'Orca' is a two-row facultative spring barley that can be planted in the fall or spring. Plots of the earliest maturing variety of barley, 'Orca', were severely damaged by redwing blackbirds that fed on the lax heads from milk stage through dough stage. The blackbirds quickly learn to ignore nonlethal threats, and we cannot use lethal control because the redwing blackbird is protected in Oregon, and OSU has a strict "no firearms" policy.
Table 1. Spring wheat and triticale yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
|OR 4880189||HR||106||64.9||11.7||35||June 4|
|OR 4870410||HR||92||64.5||10.6||38||June 9|
|Yecora Rojo||HR||86||63.7||11.9||28||May 28|
|WA 7824||HR||81||65||11.8||40||May 31|
|OR 4920311||HW||100||63.5||10.2||40||June 11|
|ML 455||HW||86||63.9||10.8||39||June 5|
|Zak (WA7850)||SW||109||62.7||9.2||38||June 7|
|Alpowa untreated||SW||101||64.8||10||39||June 8|
|Alpowa + Raxil||SW||99||64.6||10.2||40||June 9|
|OR 4970062||SW||99||65||10.5||40||June 3|
|OR 4970025||SW||96||64.1||10.9||37||June 10|
|OR 4970039||SW||96||64.6||9.2||39||June 4|
|OR 942885||SW||95||65.3||10.1||39||June 2|
|Penawawa 180 lb/acre||SW||92||63.7||9||35||June 6|
|Penawawa 140 lb/acre||SW||110||64.1||10.1||34||June 5|
|Penawawa 90 lb/acre||SW||87||62.5||8.8||37||June3|
|Trical 2700||TRIT||91||63.1||9.8||59||June 14|
*HR = hard red, HW = hard white, SW = soft white, TRIT = triticale.
†bushel = 60 lb.
Table 2. Spring barley yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
|WA 9504-94||2RF||6,014||55.3||9.7||31||June 10|
|BCD47 (Othello)||2RF/M||5,226||54.9||11.6||29||June 7|
*2RF = two-row feed, 2RM = two-row malt, 6RF = six-row feed.
Table 3. Winter wheat and triticale yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
|Stephens no Gaucho||SWW||137||62.4||9.6||42||15||0|
*HRW = hard red winter, HWW = hard white winter, SWW = soft white winter.
Table 4. Winter barley yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, date of 50 percent heading, and lodging percentage, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
*6RF = six-row feed, 2RF = two-row feed.