2000 Small Grain Variety Trials

Eric P. Eldredge, John P. Bassinette, Clinton C. Shock, Russ S. Karow, and Lamont D. Saunders
Malheur Experiment Station
Oregon State University
Ontario, OR 2000

        
Eric Eldredge and Monty Saunders try out the new planter.  Monty built this planter himself.

Introduction

Malheur Experiment Station (MES) provides one location for the statewide cereal grain variety trials that are planted at several sites across Oregon every year. The MES location provides a medium-length growing season, furrow-irrigated site for comparing cereal grain variety performance. Plant breeders gain information on the field performance of advanced lines in varied production regions. Growers can compare yields of newly released varieties to the current standards, and also see how some of the varieties in different market classes of wheat, barley, and triticale perform in our locality.

Methods

2000 Winter Grain Variety Trials

The grain trials followed onions, the field was disked and preplant fertilizer N at 50 lb/acre was broadcast. The soil was deep ripped, plowed, and groundhogged to prepare the seedbed. The field was corrugated into 30-inch rows. Seeds were planted October 9, 1999 with a Kincaid plot seeder, then the field was re-corrugated, and irrigated for 24 hours on October 19 for uniform emergence. Varieties planted in the winter cereal trials included 7 club wheats, 1 durum wheat, 4 hard white winter wheats, 13 soft white winter wheats, and 3 triticales. Seed was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. 'Stephens' was also planted with no seed treatment, and with only the Raxil fungicide treatment.

Grain was planted at a rate of 30 live seeds/ft2, and 'Stephens' was also planted at 20, 30, and 40 live seeds/ft2, which corresponds to a seeding rate of 111, 166, and 221 lb/acre. Five six-row barleys and one two-row barley were treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide and planted at 30 live seeds/ft2. In late February, 100 lb N/acre was applied by airplane. Plots were 5 x 20 ft, the winter wheat and triticale trial was replicated three times, and the winter barley trial was replicated four times. Broadleaf weeds were controlled in winter trials with Bronate at 1qt/acre applied April 4, 2000. The field was furrow irrigated for 24 hours on April 6, May 3, and June 6.

2000 Spring Grain Variety Trials

The spring grain trials were planted in the same field alongside the winter grain trials, and had the same field preparation and fertilization. The field was corrugated into 60-inch beds and seeds of varieties were planted with an MES fabricated plot seeder on March 28, 2000. Nine hard red spring wheat varieties, 6 hard white spring wheat varieties, 17 soft white spring wheat varieties, and 2 triticales were planted. In the spring barley trial, five two-row malting varieties, five two-row feed varieties, three six-row feed varieties, one two-row dual use feed or malting variety, and two hooded forage barley varieties were planted. Seed of all spring barleys was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. Plots were replicated three times in both the spring wheat and spring barley trials. The March 29, 2000 soil test showed 139 lb N/acre in the top 2 ft of soil, 31 ppm extractable P, 395 ppm K, 1.7 percent organic matter and pH 6.8. The field was re-corrugated on 30-inch rows on March 29 and received the first irrigation on April 1. Broadleaf weeds were controlled in spring trials with Bronate at 1 qt/acre applied May 15. The field was furrow irrigated for 24 hours on April 24, May 3, and June 6.

Alleys 3.3 ft wide were cut with a sicklebar mower on June 28. Grain samples were harvested in the winter cereal trials on July 19, and in the spring cereal trials on July 21 by cutting each plot with a Hege plot combine. All grain samples from both the winter and spring variety trials were hauled to Pendleton on July 25, and from there to the Oregon State University Cereals Lab at Corvallis for cleaning, moisture determination, test weight, and protein content analyses. Data from all locations of the statewide cereal trials were posted on the internet at www.css.orst.edu/cereals as soon as they were completed.

Results

At the Malheur Experiment Station in 2000 the spring weather was dry and cool, followed by a very warm summer, without the typical evening windstorms, and with no hailstorms; consequently all the cereal trials grew very well, with very little lodging.

The highest yield in the spring wheat and triticale trial was 114 bu/acre yield by 'Challis', a soft white variety with 9.9 percent protein (Table 1). 'Whitebird', 'IDO526', 'Penewawa' at the standard seeding rate, 'Zak', `IDO525', 'ML037A(5-2)', and 'Wawawai' all had yields that did not significantly differ from 'Challis'. The hard red market class high yield was 'OR4880189' at 106 bu/acre and 11.7 percent protein. Similar in yield was 'Iona'. None of the hard reds attained 14 percent protein content. Hard white spring wheat top yield was 111 bu/acre for both 'IDO377S' and 'IDO533', with 'Winsome' and 'OR4920311' yielding almost as much. Protein among the hard white spring wheats ranged from 10.1 to 11.4 percent.

Spring barley yield reached 6,014 lb/acre for the two-row feed variety 'WA9504-94' (Table 2). The hooded varieties yields were very low, but these are forage barleys that would not be grown specifically for their grain yield, except for seed production.

The top yielding winter wheat was 'Malcolm', a soft white variety, at 158 bu/acre (Table 3). 'Rod', 'OR939526', and 'Weatherford' were the other soft white winter wheat varieties that yielded well. 'Stephens' at standard, low, and high seeding rates, 152, 153, and 150 bu/acre, respectively, did not yield significantly different from 'Madsen', nor did a 50/50 mix of 'Madsen' and 'Stephens'. 'Stephens' seed treated with the Raxil fungicide, but without the Gaucho insecticide seed treatment, yielded 137 bu/acre, significantly less than 'Madsen'. 'Boundary' hard red winter wheat yielded only 128 bu/acre with 10.5 percent protein. 'Rhode' club wheat yielded 142 bu/acre, with 'Hiller', 'Bruehl', and 'Temple' not significantly different. 'Edwin', a club wheat, and 'IDO550', a soft white, had 47 and 63 percent lodging, respectively, which contributed to their low yields. 'Alzo' triticale yielded 157 bu/acre, and 'Bogo' 149 bu/acre, significantly higher than 'Celia', at 111 bu/acre.

None of the winter or spring hard red or hard white wheat varieties in these trials met the minimum standard of 14 percent protein the hard wheats require for acceptable milling and baking quality in their customary end uses. Consequently, they would sell at a lower price. Split applications of nitrogen fertilizer, or an application of nitrogen at anthesis (the beginning of flowering), have not reliably increased hard wheat protein levels in irrigated cropping systems to 14 percent and above. Hard wheats grown without irrigation usually have acceptable protein content, but the low yields typical of dryland systems would be unacceptable for growers in our area, compared to the productivity of soft wheats.

The highest yields in the winter barley variety trial were 'Strider', at 5,416 lb/acre, 'Kold', not treated with Raxil fungicide seed treatment, and 'Scio' (Table 4). 'Orca' is a two-row facultative spring barley that can be planted in the fall or spring. Plots of the earliest maturing variety of barley, 'Orca', were severely damaged by redwing blackbirds that fed on the lax heads from milk stage through dough stage. The blackbirds quickly learn to ignore nonlethal threats, and we cannot use lethal control because the redwing blackbird is protected in Oregon, and OSU has a strict "no firearms" policy.

Table 1. Spring wheat and triticale yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

  Market   Test      Heading
Variety class* Yield weight Protein Height day
    bu/acre lb/bu % in  
OR 4880189 HR 106 64.9 11.7 35 June 4
Iona HR 101 63.3 12.2 39 June 2
WPB936 HR 94 64.5 12.1 33 June 1
Hank HR 92 63.7 12.1 36 June 1
OR 4870410 HR 92 64.5 10.6 38 June 9
Jefferson HR 90 63.6 11.4 37 June 1
Scarlet HR 86 60.8 12.1 39 June 1
Yecora Rojo HR 86 63.7 11.9 28 May 28
WA 7824 HR 81 65 11.8 40 May 31
IDO377S HW 111 64.5 10.8 37 June 1
IDO533 HW 111 65 11.4 38 June 3
Winsome HW 102 64.3 10.1 36 June 13
OR 4920311 HW 100 63.5 10.2 40 June 11
IDO560 HW 98 63.8 10.3 38 June 10
ML 455 HW 86 63.9 10.8 39 June 5
Chalis SW 114 65 9.9 38 June 6
Whitebird SW 111 64.6 9.9 38 June 12
IDO526 SW 110 64.9 9.9 37 June 4
Zak (WA7850) SW 109 62.7 9.2 38 June 7
IDO525 SW 103 64.1 10 39 June 5
ML037A(5-2) SW 103 61.2 10.5 38 June 7
Wawawai SW 103 63.4 9.5 40 May 31
Treasure SW 102 64.4 8.9 38 June 9
Alpowa untreated SW 101 64.8 10 39 June 8
Alpowa + Raxil SW 99 64.6 10.2 40 June 9
Alpowa SW 97 64.8 9.2 38 June 7
IDO506 SW 101 64.8 9.1 39 June 5
Pomerelle SW 101 63.7 9.2 39 June 11
OR 4970062 SW 99 65 10.5 40 June 3
OR 4970025 SW 96 64.1 10.9 37 June 10
OR 4970039 SW 96 64.6 9.2 39 June 4
OR 942885 SW 95 65.3 10.1 39 June 2
Penawawa 180 lb/acre SW 92 63.7 9 35 June 6
Penawawa 140 lb/acre SW 110 64.1 10.1 34 June 5
Penawawa 90 lb/acre SW 87 62.5 8.8 37 June3
WA 7869 SW 80 64.3 11.7 37 June1
Trical 2700 TRIT 91 63.1 9.8 59 June 14
M94-4393 TRIT 90 61 9.8 46 June 1
Mean   98 63.9 10.4 38 June 5
LSD (0.05)   12 NS 1.2    

*HR = hard red, HW = hard white, SW = soft white, TRIT = triticale.

bushel = 60 lb.

Table 2. Spring barley yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
  Market   Test      Heading
Variety class* Yield weight Protein Height day
    bu/acre lb/bu % in  
WA 9504-94 2RF 6,014 55.3 9.7 31 June 10
Xena 2RF 5,312 56.7 9.9 34 June 7
H3860224 2RF 5,294 57.1 10.5 33 June 3
Baronesse 2RF 4,945 55.9 10.5 33 June 1
Orca 2RF 4,102 57.8 11.7 36 June 1
BCD47 (Othello) 2RF/M 5,226 54.9 11.6 29 June 7
Valier 2RM 5,356 55.7 10.2 37 June 5
Harrington 2RM 5,051 55.5 10.9 33 June 5
Chinook 2RM 4,676 55.7 10.8 35 June 1
Bancroft 2RM 4,282 56.2 11.2 33 June 1
Garnet 2RM 4,751 56.7 10.4 37 June 6
Millenium 6RF 5,594 54.2 9.5 34 June 2
Tango 6RF 5,337 53.3 10.8 37 June 1
Steptoe 6RF 5,027 53.9 10.9 37 June 3
Belford Hooded 2,786 50.1 11 41 May 28
Sara-I Hooded 2,007 50.6 13 39 May 30
Mean   4,735 54.9 10.7 35 June 3
LSD (0.05)   1,145 1.8 1.5    

*2RF = two-row feed, 2RM = two-row malt, 6RF = six-row feed.

Table 3. Winter wheat and triticale yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, and date of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

  Market   Test      Heading  
Variety class* Yield weight Protein Height day Lodging
    bu/acre lb/bu % in May %
Rohde CLUB 142 63.1 8.8 45 19 0
Hiller CLUB 139 59.7 9.2 45 19 0
Bruehl CLUB 134 60.7 10 44 31 0
Temple CLUB 129 62.9 10.2 47 16 20
Rely CLUB 118 61.7 8.9 45 26 0
Coda (WA7752) CLUB 117 63.2 10 45 31 27
Edwin (WA7834) CLUB 77 64.1 10.2 47 28 47
Connie DURUM 149 66.3 10.7 40 16 0
Boundary (ID467) HRW 128 63.9 10.5 45 25 0
OR939528 HWW 153 62.2 9.4 42 26 0
ID-52814A HWW 152 63.8 9 43 17 0
OR943575 HWW 142 62.3 9.2 45 17 0
OR943560 HWW 109 62.1 9.8 41 29 0
Malcolm SWW 158 62.7 8.8 42 20 0
Rod SWW 157 62.4 8.7 42 25 0
Stephens 100#/A SWW 153 63 9.4 41 15 0
Stephens 150#/A SWW 152 62.7 10.1 41 15 0
Stephens 200#/A SWW 150 62.8 9.6 43 15 0
OR939526 SWW 150 62.4 9.5 44 20 0
Stephens untreated SWW 150 62.7 9.3 42 14 0
Madsen+Stephens SWW 147 62.8 9.5 42 23 0
Weatherford SWW 139 62.3 9.8 44 25 0
Stephens no Gaucho SWW 137 62.4 9.6 42 15 0
Madsen SWW 135 62.4 9.6 41 23 0
ID-B-96 SWW 132 62.9 10 42 24 0
OR850513-9 SWW 131 64.5 9.2 42 23 0
Foote (OR880172) SWW 129 62.9 9.7 45 16 0
OR850513-8 SWW 121 64.2 9.4 43 26 0
IDO513 SWW 119 64 10.9 41 22 0
IDO550 SWW 102 63.1 10.1 42 30 63
Alzo Triticale 157 59.9 9.5 52 15 0
Bogo Triticale 149 56.4 9.7 49 16 0
Celia Triticale 111 58 11.6 42 26 0
Mean   135.3 62.4 9.69 44 21 5
LSD (0.05)   20 0.7 1.16      

*HRW = hard red winter, HWW = hard white winter, SWW = soft white winter.

Table 4. Winter barley yield, test weight, protein percentage, height at maturity, date of 50 percent heading, and lodging percentage, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
  Market   Test      Heading  
Variety class* Yield weight Protein Height day Lodging
    bu/acre lb/bu % in   %
88Ab536 6RF 3,728 50.2 11.3 43 April 28 9
Kold 6RF 2,990 47.1 11.9 43 May 16 0
Kold(un) 6RF 5,410 46.1 12.1 43 May 16 0
Scio 6RF 5,066 46.8 11.7 44 May 9 0
Strider 6RF 5,416 45.9 11.7 43 May 12 0
Orca 2RF 2,620 55.5 13.7 43 April21 0
Mean   4,205 48.6 11.9 43 May 7 2
LSD (0.05)   1,239 4.7 6.9 43    

*6RF = six-row feed, 2RF = two-row feed.