Sugar Beet Variety Testing Results, 2000

Eric Eldredge, Clint Shock, and Monty Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

Introduction

The sugar beet industry, in cooperation with the University of Idaho and Oregon State University, tests sugar beet varieties at three replicate locations each year to identify cultivars with high sugar yield and root quality. A seed advisory committee evaluates the combined data to decide which varieties growers can plant. This report provides the agronomic practices, experimental procedures, and beet yields and quality for the Malheur Experiment Station replicate of the trials.

Methods

Sugar beet varieties were entered by ACH Seeds, Betaseed, Hilleshog Mono Hy, Holly Hybrids-Spreckels, and Seedex, with 22 varieties in the Commercial Trial, and 29 varieties (including check varieties) in the Experimental Trial. All seed for the Commercial trial was organized by Ron Roemer of the University of Idaho, as were most of the seed of varieties in the Experimental trial. Sugar beets were grown in a field that had grown winter wheat the year before. The Greenleaf silt loam received 50 lb/acre N plus 50 lb/acre P fall fertilizer, the field was then plowed, disked, groundhogged, and fall bedded on 22-inch rows.

The results of a soil test taken on March 30, 2000, showed 11 ppm nitrate-N and 5 ppm ammonium-N in the first ft of soil; 13 ppm nitrate-N and 4 ppm ammonium-N in the second ft; 23 ppm extractable phosphorus, 1.4 ppm exchangeable zinc, pH 6.8, and 1.5 percent organic matter. Winter annual weed seedlings were controlled with Roundup herbicide at 0.5 gallon/acre applied on March 25. Nortron SC preplant herbicide was applied at 6 pints/acre and incorporated using a spiked-tooth harrow on April 3.

The Experimental Trial was planted on April 4, and the Commercial Trial was planted on April 5. Seeds were planted with a John Deere model 71 flexi-planter with double disc furrow openers equipped with cone seeders to uniformly distribute the seed at a seeding rate of 12 viable seeds/ft of row. Plots of each variety were four rows wide by 23 ft. long, with a 4-ft alley separating plots. Each entry was replicated eight times in a randomized complete block design. On April 6 the field was corrugated and Counter 20CR was applied in a band over the row at 8 lb/acre. On April 7, the field was furrow irrigated to promote uniform emergence. The sugar beet seedling emergence was very uniform, and most varieties had 1-inch-long cotyledons by April 23, prior to the second irrigation on April 24. On May 3, Betamix Progress was broadcast at 1.37 pint/acre. On May 12 through 15, seedlings were pulled by hand to thin the stand to one plant every 7 inches in the row. The variety trials were cultivated and sidedressed with urea at a rate of 177 lb N/acre, and recultivated on May 19. The field was irrigated the third time on May 19. On May 23 sugar beet root maggot was discovered in the field. The maggots had not been adequately controlled by the Counter 20CR that had already been applied. To control sugar beet root maggot, the sugar beets were sidedressed on one side of each row with Temik 15G at 10 lb/acre, and recorrugated on May 24, and irrigated for the fourth time, to move the insecticide with the wetting front into the sugar beet seedlings' root zone.

On June 28 Sulfur Flowable 6 was applied by aerial applicator at 4 quart/acre for control of powdery mildew. The field was hand weeded on July 7. Sulfur dust was applied by aerial applicator at 30 lb/acre on July 11. The field was recorrugated July 17, and hand weeded on August 2. On August 3 sulfur at 30 lb/acre was applied by aerial applicator, and again on August 28 with a double application of Sulfur at 50 lb/acre. Irrigations through the summer were scheduled with Watermark (Irrometer Co. Inc., Riverside, CA) soil moisture sensors to maintain the soil water potential wetter than -70 centibar at 10-inch depth in the beet row. The last irrigation was on September 19.

Sugar beets from the Commercial Trial were harvested on October 10 and 11, and from the Experimental Trial on October 11 and 18. Foliage was flailed and crowns were removed with rotating knives. All beets in the center two rows of every plot were dug with a two-row wheel-lifter harvester and weighed, and two samples of eight sugar beets were taken in each plot. Samples were taken each day to the Amalgamated Sugar, LLC plant in Nyssa for analysis of percent sucrose (Sug), pulp nitrate concentration, and conductivity (Cond). The percent extraction (Ext) was calculated using the formula:

Ext = 250 + [(1,255.2 * Cond) - (15,000 * Sug) - 6,185] / Sug * (98.66 - 7.845 * Cond)

The weight of sugar beets from each plot was tared 5 percent to estimate beet yields. Variety differences in yield, sucrose content, conductivity, percent extraction, and estimated recoverable sugar were calculated using ANOVA. Sugar beet performance in both trials was compared to the check varieties ACH Seeds 'ACH Mustang', Betaseed 'Beta 8757', and Hilleshog Mono Hy 'HM Owyhee' and 'HM PM21'.

Results

Stand establishment was very uniform in this year's sugar beet variety trials at Malheur Experiment Station. Prolonged hot weather in the summer promoted powdery mildew infection on sugar beet foliage in the trials; it was not effectively controlled by sulfur dust, as was also experienced in growers' fields in the vicinity.

Variety performance was grouped by seed company for the Commercial Trial (Table 1) and the Experimental Trial (Table 2). Within each seed company's varieties, varieties are ranked in descending order of estimated recoverable sugar in pounds per acre. Root yield in the Commercial Trial averaged 36.9 tared ton/acre, with average sugar content 17.66 percent, and average estimated recoverable sugar 11,385 lb/acre. 'SX Puma', with estimated recoverable sugar 12,336 lb/acre, 'Beta 8919', with estimated recoverable sugar 12,167 lb/acre, 'Beta 8220B', with estimated recoverable sugar 12,004 lb/acre, 'Beta 4035R', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,912 lb/acre, 'Beta 4490R', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,758 lb/acre, 'Beta 8757', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,454 lb/acre, 'HM PM21', with estimated recoverable sugar 12,034 lb/acre, 'HM Dillon', with estimated recoverable sugar 12,003 lb/acre, 'HM Oasis', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,992 lb/acre, 'HM Owyhee', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,487 lb/acre, and 'ACH Mustang', with estimated recoverable sugar 11,727 lb/acre, were among the highest yielding varieties in the Commercial Trial.

Root yield in the Experimental Trial (Table 2) averaged 40.8 tared ton/acre, with average sugar content 17.54 percent, and average estimated recoverable sugar 12,537 lb/acre. The varieties yielding the highest estimated recoverable sugar were 'HH 00HX0032' with 14,059 lb/acre, 'HH 00HX0033' with 13,777 lb/acre, 'Beta 7CG6000' with 13,915 lb/acre, 'Beta 8KG6976' with 13,756 lb/acre, 'Crystal 0003' with 13,365 lb/acre, 'SX 1516' with 13,329 lb/acre, and 'HM 2985RZ' with 13,231 lb/acre.

Table 1. Commercial sugar beet variety root yield, sugar content, root quality, and recoverable sugar from varieties entered in the trial at Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

  Root Sugar Gross Conductivity Extraction Estimated
  yield content sugar     recoverable sugar
Variety ton/acre % lb/ton mmho % lb/ton lb/acre
ACH Seeds              
ACH Mustang 38.1 17.72 13,499 0.617 86.87 308 11,727
ACH Tomcat 36.5 17.37 12,686 0.610 86.88 302 11,027
Betaseed              
Beta 8919 37.1 18.70 13,865 0.561 87.75 328 12,167
Beta 8220B 39.2 17.51 13,736 0.574 87.37 306 12,004
Beta 4035R 40.1 17.11 13,704 0.604 86.91 297 11,912
Beta 4490R 37.9 17.81 13,511 0.605 87.03 310 11,758
Beta 8757 37.3 17.72 13,205 0.626 86.75 308 11,454
Beta 8348 36.0 17.02 12,262 0.536 87.76 299 10,769
Beta 8468 34.6 17.67 12,222 0.601 87.07 308 10,639
Beta 4470R 33.7 18.01 12,145 0.584 87.33 315 10,607
Beta 8422 33.8 17.89 12,087 0.606 87.04 311 10,520
Beta 8118 33.8 17.70 11,946 0.611 86.93 308 10,386
Hilleshog Mono Hy            
HM PM21 38.4 17.66 13,575 0.476 88.64 313 12,034
HM Dillon 39.1 17.40 13,597 0.505 88.23 307 12,003
HM Oasis 39.1 17.44 13,629 0.525 87.99 307 11,992
HM Owyhee 37.1 17.52 12,984 0.489 88.45 310 11,487
HM Sierra 36.3 17.67 12,817 0.521 88.08 311 11,289
HM 2980 37.2 17.53 13,021 0.646 86.45 303 11,256
HM 1642 32.0 17.86 11,419 0.528 88.02 315 10,057
Holly Hybrids-Spreckels            
HH 120 38.6 17.94 13,840 0.628 86.77 311 12,009
Seedex              
SX Puma 39.9 17.52 13,968 0.501 88.31 309 12,336
SX Blazer 35.5 17.83 12,638 0.576 87.40 312 11,047
               
Mean 36.9 17.66 13,016 0.570 87.46 309 11,385
LSD (.05) 2.8 0.27 991 0.046 0.62 6.3 892
LSD (.1) 2.3 0.23 830 0.039 0.52 5.2 747
CV (%) 7.6 1.6 7.7 8.2 0.7 2.0 7.9
Pr > F 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001

Table 2. Experimental sugar beet variety root yield, sugar content, root quality, and recoverable sugar from varieties entered in the trial at Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

  Root Sugar Gross Conductivity Extraction Estimated
  yield content sugar     recoverable sugar
Variety ton/acre % lb/ton mmho % lb/ton lb/acre
ACH Seeds              
Crystal 0003 42.3 17.99 15,190 0.533 88.0 316 13,365
Crystal 0002 41.8 17.64 14,748 0.558 87.6 309 12,921
ACH Mustang  41.0 17.59 14,431 0.618 86.8 306 12,530
Crystal 0001 40.3 17.26 13,912 0.596 87.0 301 12,112
Crystal 9906 38.7 17.39 13,451 0.564 87.5 304 11,768
Crystal 9908 36.7 17.51 12,850 0.628 86.7 304 11,136
Betaseed              
Beta 7CG6000 45.0 17.67 15,903 0.566 87.5 309 13,915
Beta 8KG6976 45.9 17.14 15,729 0.562 87.5 300 13,756
Beta 8CG7305 41.2 18.25 15,047 0.597 87.2 318 13,121
Beta 8CG7299 41.4 17.91 14,841 0.612 87.0 312 12,907
Beta 7CG5936 40.7 17.76 14,479 0.453 89.0 316 12,882
Beta 7KJ5073 39.6 17.28 13,681 0.598 87.0 301 11,907
Beta 8757 38.6 17.44 13,448 0.588 87.2 304 11,724
Hilleshog Mono Hy              
HM 2985RZ 43.7 17.20 15,040 0.523 88.0 303 13,231
HM PM21 42.1 17.47 14,706 0.481 88.6 310 13,021
HM 2984RZ 42.7 17.26 14,720 0.512 88.1 304 12,971
HM 2983RZ 40.4 17.21 13,902 0.539 87.8 302 12,199
HM Owyhee 40.0 17.30 13,824 0.527 87.9 304 12,156
Holly Hybrids-Spreckels            
HH 00HX0032 45.2 17.68 15,968 0.522 88.1 312 14,059
HH 00HX0033 44.4 17.50 15,546 0.475 88.6 310 13,777
HH 99HX901 38.6 18.09 13,963 0.598 87.2 316 12,176
HH 99HX905 38.6 17.71 13,605 0.551 87.7 311 11,922
HH 97HX706 36.6 18.27 13,359 0.506 88.4 323 11,805
HH 00HX0035 36.5 17.53 12,801 0.466 88.7 311 11,359
HH 00HX0036 34.6 18.14 12,543 0.576 87.5 317 10,972
Seedex              
SX 1516 42.7 17.63 15,038 0.477 88.6 313 13,329
SX 1515 42.4 16.84 14,262 0.423 89.2 300 12,714
SX 1517 41.8 16.84 14,079 0.612 86.8 292 12,217
SX 1518 38.6 17.29 13,339 0.583 87.2 302 11,634
               
Mean 40.8 17.54 14,290 0.546 87.7 308 12,537
LSD (0.05) 2.8 0.41 931 0.032 0.4 7.9 820
LSD (0.10) 2.4 0.34 780 0.027 0.4 6.6 687
CV (%) 7.0 2.4 6.6 6.1 0.5 2.6 6.6
Pr > F 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001