SOYBEAN PERFORMANCE IN OREGON IN 2000

Erik B.G. Feibert, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders
Malheur Experiment Station
Oregon State University
Ontario, OR

Introduction

Soybean is a potentially valuable new crop for Oregon. Soybean could provide a high-quality protein for animal nutrition and oil for human consumption, both of which are in short supply in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, edible or vegetable soybean production could be exported to the Orient and provide a raw material for specialized food products. Soybean is valuable as a rotation crop because of the soil-improving qualities of its residues and its N2-fixing capability. Because of the high-value irrigated crops typically grown in the Snake River Valley, soybeans may be economically feasible only at high yields.

Soybean varieties developed for the midwestern and southern states are not necessarily well adapted to Oregon's lower night temperatures, lower relative humidity, and other climatic differences. Previous research at Ontario has shown that, compared to the commercial cultivars bred for the Midwest, plants for eastern Oregon need to have high tolerance to seed shatter and lodging, reduced plant height, increased seed set, and higher harvest index (ratio of seed to the whole plant). There is also a need to identify semi-dwarf cultivars that will grow and yield well under high seeding rates and narrow row spacing. Yields could also be increased by increasing the seeding rate from 200,000 seeds/acre to 300,000 seeds/acre if semi-dwarf lines adapted to local conditions could be identified.

M. Seddigh and G. Jolliff at Oregon State University, Corvallis, identified a soybean line that would fill pods when subjected to cool night temperatures. Those lines were crossed at Corvallis with productive lines to produce 'OR 6' and 'OR 8', among others. At this point, the development moved to Ontario, OR. The later two lines were crossed at our request for several years with early-maturing high-yielding semi-dwarf lines by R.L. Cooper (USDA, ARS, Wooster, OH) to produce semi-dwarf lines with potential adaptation to the Pacific Northwest. Selection criteria at the Malheur Experiment Station included high yield, zero lodging, zero shatter, low plant height, and maturity in the available growing season. In 1992, 241 single plants were selected from five F5 lines that were originally bred and selected for adaptation to eastern Oregon. Seed from these selections was planted and evaluated in 1993. Eighteen selections were found promising and selected for further testing in larger plots in 1994 and 1995. Starting in 1995, all lines were planted at 300,000 seeds/acre. This report summarizes work done in 2000 as part of the continuing breeding and selection program to adapt soybeans to eastern Oregon.

Methods

The 2000 line evaluation trial was conducted on Owyhee silt loam previously planted to wheat. The herbicide Dual at one lb ai/acre was broadcast preplant and incorporated with a bed harrow on May 9. Seed was planted on May 12 at 200,000 seeds/acre in rows 22 inches apart. Rhizobium japonicum soil-implant inoculant was applied in the seed furrow at planting. Emergence began on May 19. The crop was furrow irrigated as necessary. Eight of the single plant selections from 1992, nine cultivars, and 'OR 6' and 'OR 8' were planted in replicated plots four rows wide by 25 ft long in 2000. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. All plots were cut to 22 ft.

Plant height and reproductive stage were measured weekly for each cultivar. Stand counts were made in 3 ft of row in each plot in 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2000. Prior to harvest, each plot was evaluated for lodging and seed shatter. Lodging was rated as the degree to which the plants were leaning over (0 = vertical, 10 = prostrate). The middle two rows in each four-row plot were harvested on September 26 using a Wintersteiger Nurserymaster small plot combine. Beans were cleaned, weighed, and oven dried to determine moisture content. Dry bean yields were corrected to 13 percent moisture. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Means separation was determined by the protected least significant difference (LSD) test.

Results and Discussion

Yields ranged from 37 bu/acre for 'OR-8' to 60 bu/acre for 'Korada'(Table 1). Lodging ranged from zero to two for the 1992 single plant selections and from zero to seven for the other cultivars. Of the 1992 single plant selections, 'M92-085', 'M92-213', and 'M92-330' had seed counts sufficient for the manufacturing of tofu (< 2,270 seeds/lb) in 2000 (Table 2). The cultivars 'M92-330', 'OR-8', 'Evans', and 'Sibley' had seed counts of less than 2,270 seeds/lb every year that seed counts were made. The lines 'M92-085' and 'M92-213' combine early maturity, no shatter, no lodging, seed counts and hilum color adequate for tofu (Table 3). The lines 'M92-225' and 'M92-237' made reasonable tofu in food quality tests in 1999.

In 1995 the planting rate was increased from 200,000 to 300,000 seeds/acre (Table 4). In 1999 the seeding rate was reduced to 200,000 seeds/acre. However, plant populations in 1996 and 1997 were not different from 1999 (Table 5). Plant populations were below the target of 300,000 plants/acre in 1996 and 1997 and 200,000 plants/acre in 1999 and 2000.

Table 1. Performance of soybean cultivars, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
Cultivar  Days to maturity*  Days to harvest maturity Lodging  Shatter  Height  Yield  Seed count  Hilum color 
  days from emergence  0-10 percent  cm  bu/acre  seeds/lb   
M92-085  91  111  90  48.2  2,236  white 
M92-213  101  111  55  44.0  2,081  tan 
M92-220  101  111  100  41.4  2,461  tan 
M92-225  91  111  75  49.4  2,443  white 
M92-237  91  111  100  48.1  2,528  tan 
M92-314  111  118  110  39.3  2,484  black 
M92-330  91  111  90  52.3  2,090  black 
M92-350  91 111  100  47.7  2,357  black 
OR-6  91  111  90  51.1  2,316  white 
OR-8  111  118  115  37.1  1,938  white 
Agassiz  96  111  95  48.0  2,335  brown 
Evans  101  111  115  47.5  2,180  white 
Glacier  91  111  80  49.6  2,286  tan 
Gnome 85  111  118  105  49.6  2,174  white 
Korada  96  111  85  60.3  2,324  white 
Lambert  101  111  105  57.1  2,278  brown 
Lena  96  111  100  51.1  2,373  white 
R0725CH  96  111  105  53.0  2,374  white 
Sibley  111  118  110  40.1  1,847  white 
Mean              2,269   
LSD (0.05)    NS    5.5  157   
*Pods yellowing, 50 percent of leaves yellow.   
Stems dry enough to be combined, 95 percent of pods brown.   
0 = none, 10 = 100 percent lodging.   

Table 2. Seed counts for soybean cultivars for 5 years, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

Cultivar  1994  1995  1996  1999  2000  average 
  ---------------------------- seeds/lb --------------------------- 
M92-085  2,392  2,188  2,030  2,455  2,236  2,260 
M92-213  2,304  1,995  2,084  2,284  2,081  2,150 
M92-217  1,976  2,033  2,000  2,149    2,040 
M92-220  2,660  2,213  1,974  2,336  2,461  2,329 
M92-223  2,273  2,017  1,930  2,456    2,169 
M92-225  2,825  2,353  2,195  2,169  2,443  2,397 
M92-237  2,449  2,142  2,049  2,547  2,528  2,343 
M92-239  2,041  1,946  2,227  2,346    2,140 
M92-314  2,119  2,113  1,962  2,302  2,484  2,196 
M92-330  2,063  2,037  2,195  2,113  2,090  2,100 
M92-350  2,580  2,219  2,168  2,218  2,357  2,308 
OR-6  2,803  2,205  1,985  2,327  2,316  2,327 
OR-8  2,083  2,059  2,055  2,223  1,938  2,072 
Agassiz  2,372  2,166  1,984  2,230  2,335  2,217 
Evans  2,232  2,152  1,972  2,187  2,180  2,145 
Glacier        2,309  2,286  2,298 
Gnome 85  2,463  2,167  2,040  2,003  2,174  2,169 
Korada          2,324  2,324 
Lambert  2,347  2,126  1,934  2,270  2,278  2,191 
Lena          2,373  2,373 
Minnato        3,405    3,405 
Proto        2,199    2,199 
R0725CH          2,374  2,374 
Sibley  2,066  1,845  1,828  2,226  1,847  1,962 
Vinton        1,759    1,759 
Mean  2,336  2,110  2,034  2,296  2,269  2,250 
LSD (0.05)    155  116  132  157   

Table 3. Maturity (days from emergence), lodging (0-10), and height (cm) of soybean lines, 1994-2000, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.
Cultivar 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
  Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht Mat Lod Ht
M92-085 93 2 102 106 0 95 105 6 70 100 0 80 115 0 56 107 0 76 91 0 90
M92-213 107 0 70 123 0 80 105 0 80 112 0 100 128 0 70 107 0 83 101 0 55
M92-217 107 0 68 115 0 75 105 0 86 112 0 80 137 0 55 107 0 87      
M92-220 107 4 102 123 0 80 115 2 80 112 0 85 121 0 60 107 0 85 101 1 100
M92-223 107 0 65 115 0 65 115 0 70 114 4 110 132 3 55 113 0.6 115      
M92-225 93 5 92 106 0 80 90 1 76 100 0 60 115 0 42 94 0 74 91 0 75
M92-237 100 5 106 106 0 95 90 0 88 100 0 70 115 0 49 107 0.1 104 91 2 100
M92-239 107 0 67 106 0 55 105 0 85 112 0 65 128 0 46 113 0.5 98      
M92-314 100 0 80 106 0 55 90 0 74 112 0 80 137 0 56 113 0 80 111 0 110
M92-330 100 1 101 98 2 95 90 0 74 100 0 65 115 0 46 94 0.3 85 91 0 90
M92-350 107 7 106 106 8 105 90 9 79 100 0 100 115 0 64 101 0 86 91 1 100
OR-6 100 9 107 106 2 100 98 9 97 112 3 85 115 8 60 97 0.5 105 91 2 90
OR-8 120 10 96 129 7 100 126 7 78 120 8 105 137 7 74 113 1.6 110 111 7 115
Agassiz 102 7 105 123 5 100 98 6 76 112 3 70 132 6 62 101 0.3 100 96 2 95
Evans 107 9 105 123 8 110 126 8 70 120 8 100 137 10 69 107 0.8 117 101 7 115
Glacier                               101 0.8 91 91 1 80
Gnome 85 102 8 105 123 6 100 105 8 90 112 7 100 132 9 72 101 1.3 107 111 7 105
Korada                                     96 0 85
Lambert 107 9 112 129 6 85 126 7 81 112 6 105 132 9 71 113 3 100 101 8 105
Lena                                     96 6 100
R0725CH                                     96 9 105
Sibley 114 10 110 125 8 90 126 7 75 120 9 60 137 9 42 113 3.5 110 111 5 110
Vinton                               120 6 120 100 4 100
Mean 104 5 94 115 3 87 106 4 79 110 3 84 127 3 58 107 1 97 98 3 96

Table 4. Yield of soybean cultivars in 7 years; Hail depressed yields in 1998. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2000.

Cultivar Yield
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Average 1994-2000
  ---------------------------------------- bu/acre -------------------------------------------
M92-085 63.3 48.7 41.2 50.0 29.4 48.6 48.2 47.1
M92-213 61.2 43.4 52.3 49.9 26.9 53.5 44.0 47.3
M92-217 35.7 49.3 48.8 55.2 25.3 47.7   43.7
M92-220 62.0 49.6 46.3 54.6 47.4 42.8 41.4 49.2
M92-223 45.6 55.3 34.5 45.5 20.9 39.9   40.3
M92-225 62.8 49.1 51.7 43.7 27.8 49.3 49.4 47.7
M92-237 63.1 50.6 42.1 48.5 31.9 44.8 48.1 47.0
M92-239 47.8 42.2 44.4 42.0 23.5 43.4   40.5
M92-314 63.2 48.9 57.8 49.2 28.6 47.5 39.3 47.8
M92-330 57.8 51.1 55.0 44.8 41.8 45.4 52.3 49.7
M92-350 63.6 55.2 43.0 49.9 34.9 42.4 47.7 48.1
OR-6 58.2 28.2 25.3 43.6 33.1 42.6 51.1 40.3
OR-8 66.3 34.0 22.1 34.2 13.6 40.1 37.1 35.3
Agassiz 62.4 36.3 38.6 46.0 21.7 43.9 48.0 42.4
Evans 68.6 13.2 14.2 29.9 25.0 40.0 47.5 34.1
Gnome 85 67.0 32.6 25.3 41.8 23.9 41.0 49.6 40.2
Lambert 69.6 31.7 29.4 53.6 35.2 47.5 57.1 46.3
Sibley 64.3 24.0 18.4 29.7 14.8 41.0 40.1 33.2
Average 60.1 41.3 38.4 45.1 28.1 44.5 46.7 43.3

Table 5. Plant population for soybean cultivars for 4 years, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1999.

Cultivar Plant population
1996 1997 1999 2000
  ------------------------------ plants/acre -----------------------------
M92-085 184,533 121,664 120,780 76,230
M92-213 155,587 139,769 143,550 78,210
M92-217 72,366 153,528 92,070  
M92-220 130,259 129,630 141,570 81,180
M92-223 47,038 115,870 148,500  
M92-225 57,893 134,699 141,570 76,230
M92-237 47,038 134,699 145,530 93,060
M92-239 123,022 142,665 137,610  
M92-314 155,587 144,114 100,980 77,220
M92-330 115,786 138,320 104,940 97,020
M92-350 173,678 137,596 132,660 62,370
OR-6 188,152 133,521 153,450 81,180
OR-8 159,205 132,527 164,340 99,990
Agassiz 155,587 118,767 111,870 72,270
Evans 94,076 127,457 103,950 100,980
Glacier     179,190 73,260
Gnome 85 126,641 118,767 124,740 105,930
Lambert 249,663 137,596 188,100 110,880
Minnato     288,090  
Proto     162,360  
Sibley 115,786 131,803 99,990 98,010
Vinton     149,490  
Korada       116,820
Lena       76,230
R0725CH       87,120
Mean 130,661 132,944 142,515 87,589
LSD (0.05)   NS 22,361 25,797