2002 Small Grain Variety Trials

Eric P. Eldredge, Clinton C. Shock, Russell S. Karow, John P. Bassinette,

and Lamont D. Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

Introduction

Malheur Experiment Station provides one location for the statewide cereal grain variety testing program at sites across Oregon. This location provides a furrow-irrigated site for comparing cereal grain variety performance. Plant breeders can use this information to compare the field performance of advanced lines with released varieties in varied production regions. Growers can use this information to make decisions about which of the varieties in different market classes of wheat, barley, and triticale perform best in this area.

Methods

The previous crop was sweet corn. After harvest, the corn stalks were flailed, the field was disked, and the soil was sampled and analyzed. Pre-plant fertilizer was broadcast at 50 lb N/acre,160 lb P2O5/acre, 178 lb K2O/acre, 190 lb S/acre, 10 lb Zn/acre, 2 lb Cu/acre, 4 lb Mn/acre, and 1 lb B/acre. The soil was deep ripped, plowed, and groundhogged to prepare the seedbed. The field was corrugated into 30-inch rows.

2002 Winter Grain Variety Trials

The Winter Cereal Trial was comprised of 8 club wheats, 1 durum wheat, 3 hard white winter wheats, 4 hard red winter wheats, 26 soft white winter wheats, and 2 triticales. Seed of all varieties was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. Seeds were planted October 18, 2001 with a plot seeder in plots 5 x 20 ft, then the field was re-corrugated. Grain was planted at a rate of 30 viable seeds/ft2, which corresponds to approximately 110 lb/acre. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications.

The winter barley trial was comprised of seven six-row barleys, treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide, and planted at 30 viable seeds/ft2. The winter barley trial was planted on October 18, 2001, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. On April 10 urea prills fertilizer was broadcast over both winter trials to apply 50 lb N/acre. Broadleaf weeds were controlled with Bronate at 1qt/acre applied April 12. The field was furrow irrigated for 24 hours on March 22, April 29, May 17, and June 3. Alleys 3.3 ft wide were cut with a sicklebar mower on June 26. Grain samples were harvested on July 16 with a Hege plot combine.

2002 Spring Cereals Variety Trials: Hard Wheat, Soft Wheat, and Feed Grains

A soil sample was taken from the field on March 1, 2002. The soil analysis showed ammonia and nitrate forms of N in the top 2 ft of soil totaled 78 lb N/acre, with 15 ppm extractable P, 394 ppm K, pH 7.3, and 2 percent organic matter. The 2002 spring cereals trials were divided into three separate trials; a hard wheat variety trial, a soft wheat variety trial, and a spring feed-grains trial, in order to allow nitrogen fertilizer to be applied separately to the hard wheat trial to promote higher protein content. The spring grain trials were beside the winter grain trials, and had the same field preparation including fall fertilizer. The field was corrugated into 30-inch beds and left through the winter. On March 5, 2002, preplant fertilizer was broadcast to supply 36 lb N/acre, 3.6 lb Zn/acre, 0.71 lb Cu/acre, and 0.71 lb B/acre.

Seeds of varieties were planted on March 13 with a plot seeder, in plots 5 x 20 ft, at a seeding rate of 30 live seeds/ft2, which corresponds to a seeding rate of approximately 110 lb/acre. Broadleaf weeds were controlled in the spring grain trials with Bronate at 1 qt/acre applied on May 12. The field was re-corrugated on 30-inch rows immediately after planting, and irrigated on March 22, April 29, May 17, and June 3. The spring hard wheats trial received an additional 50 lb N/acre before anthesis. Immediately before the May 17 irrigation, a calibrated scoop of urea prills was placed in each irrigation furrow at the top end of every plot in the hard spring wheat trial to provide water-run nitrogen fertilizer.

The spring hard wheat variety trial was comprised of 10 hard red spring wheats, and 8 hard white spring wheats, with 2 soft white spring wheats included as checks. The spring soft and club wheat variety trial was comprised of nine soft white wheat varieties and two club wheats, with one hard red, and one hard white wheat included as checks. The spring barley trial was comprised of four two-row malting varieties, three two-row feed varieties, two oat varieties, and two hull-less oat varieties. Seed of all spring grain was treated with Raxil fungicide and Gaucho insecticide. Plots were replicated three times in both of the spring wheat trials and in the spring feed grains trial.

Alleys 3.3 ft wide were cut with a sicklebar mower on June 27-28. Grain samples were harvested in the spring cereal trials on July 17 with a Hege plot combine. All of the grain samples from the winter and spring variety trials were taken to Oregon State University at Corvallis where they were cleaned with a Peltz rub-bar cleaner and weighed. Moisture content, test weight, protein content, and 1,000-kernel weight were measured. Data were analyzed and tabulated, and data from each location of the statewide cereal trials were posted on the internet at www.css.orst.edu/cereals as they were completed.

Results

At the Malheur Experiment Station in 2002, spring weather was cool and dry, followed by near record heat in early July. The temperature on July 10 was 102oF, followed by 107o, 106o, 107o, 98o, 97o, 96o, and 102oF on subsequent days. All the cereal trials grew very well, with very little lodging. A thunderstorm with strong wind and 0.28 inch of rain on the evening of June 27, and another thunderstorm on July 7 with 0.1 inch of rain, contributed to the lodging that was observed. Some grain fields in the vicinity of Malheur Experiment Station were badly lodged at harvest this year. Grain maturity in these trials was early due to the unusually high temperatures in July.

Winter Cereals Trial

Among the soft white winter wheat varieties, the highest yielding was 'OR941550' at 145 bu/acre, which was not significantly higher than the next 15 soft white wheat varieties (Table 1). Very little lodging was observed in this trial. One plot of 'Temple' club wheat was 40 percent lodged, and one plot of 'Gary' soft white wheat was 20 percent lodged.

Winter Barley Trial

In the winter barley variety trial 'Strider' at 5,452 lb/acre, and 'Kold' at 4,550 lb/acre were among the highest yielding six-row feed varieties (Table 2). The experimental lines 'Stab-113' at 4,487 lb/acre and 'Kab-37' at 4,270 lb/acre were the highest yielding six-row varieties that are also being evaluated for malting. Plots of 'Stab 47' and 'Stab-7' were ruined by red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) feeding.

Spring Feed Grains Trial

Spring barley yield reached 6,815 lb/acre for the two-row feed variety 'Farmington', which was significantly higher than the other varieties in the trial (Table 3). The highest yielding hull-less oat variety was 'Lamont' at 3,871 lb/acre, with 15.6 percent protein. There was no lodging in the spring barley trial, but 'Orca' was damaged by red-winged blackbirds.

Spring Soft Wheat Trial

The trial average yield was 110 bu/acre, and there were no differences in yield at the 5 percent level of statistical probability (Table 4). The club wheat 'IDO 556' produced 110 bu/acre. Protein content ranged from 10.2 percent for the hard red wheat 'Jefferson' to 8.0 percent for the soft white wheat 'IDO 526'. There was very little lodging in the spring soft wheat trial with 7 percent lodging in plots of 'Zak', and 3 percent lodging in 'Wawawai', 'Penawawa', and 'Alpowa'.

Spring Hard Wheat Trial

Yield of hard spring wheats averaged 103 bu/acre (Table 5). In the hard red market class, the varieties with yield higher than 100 bu/acre were 'WPB 936' at 111 bu/acre, 'Tara' at 110 bu/acre, 'Yecora Rojo' at 108 bu/acre, 'IDO 557' at 102 bu/acre, 'Jefferson' at 102 bu/acre, and 'Hank' at 101 bu/acre. None of the hard red wheats attained a protein content of 14 percent, the standard protein percentage required for hard red wheats to receive a premium market price.

Among the highest yielding varieties in the spring hard wheat trial was 'Lolo' hard white wheat with 116 bu/acre, which was not significantly higher yield than 'ID377S' at 113 bu/acre, 'Winsome' at 109 bu/acre, 'Macon' at 107 bu/acre, 'WA 007900' at 102 bu/acre or 'OR 4970018' at 102 bu/acre. 'Alpowa' soft white spring wheat, included in this hard wheat trial as a check, produced 119 bu/acre. Protein among the hard white spring wheats ranged from 8.6 to 9.8 percent.

There was very little lodging in the spring hard wheat trial, with one plot each of 'Sunco', 'Scarlet', and 'OR 4970025' lodged 10 percent. Split applications of nitrogen fertilizer, or an application of nitrogen at, or just before, anthesis (the beginning of flowering), have not reliably increased hard wheat protein levels in irrigated cropping systems to 14 percent and above. Hard wheats grown in dryland regions usually have acceptable protein content, but the low grain yield typical of dryland systems would be economically unacceptable for growers in our area, compared to the productivity of irrigated soft white wheats.

Table 1. Winter wheat and triticale yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight (TKW), height at maturity, and day of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2002.


Market
Test



Variety

class* Yield weight Protein TKW Height Heading


bu/acre lb/bu % g in day

Coda

Club 130 61.4 7.6 34.7 39 150

Rely

Club 127 59.4 7.4 33.4 40 151

Hiller

Club 125 57.3 8.1 33.2 39 150

Rohde

Club 123 61.2 7.4 34.4 37 150

Edwin

Club 122 62.2 8.1 33.9 44 150

Chukar (WA7853)

Club 119 57.8 7.2 32.4 40 152

Temple

Club 118 59.5 8.1 34.5 42 149

Bruehl

Club 116 57.8 7.8 35.9 39 153

Connie

Durum 123 64.3 8.5 50.7 41 146

Boundary

HR 128 60.9 8.3 41.4 43 150

DW (IDO-513)

HR 122 62.5 8.3 33.9 41 148

IDO-571

HR 119 61.9 8.7 35.1 45 148

IDO-517

HR 109 63.0 8.4 35.0 38 147

OR 942496

HW 127 63.8 8.3 44.0 44 147

Gary (ID550)

HW 123 60.0 7.4 38.7 46 153

OR 850513-8

HW 106 61.8 8.2 37.1 41 149

OR 941550

SW 145 61.6 8.1 42.6 39 148

ID-9134302A

SW 144 60.6 7.7 42.1 40 151

ARS-96277

SW 140 61.6 8.6 45.4 40 150

ID17113A

SW 138 60.4 7.6 38.7 40 150

Madsen/Stephens

SW 134 60.7 7.8 45.0 40 150

OR 941904

SW 134 61.0 7.5 39.0 41 150

OR 2010051

CF-SW 134 60.7 8.4 44.3 39 149

IDO-587

CF-SW 131 60.9 7.9 50.4 38 146

Weatherford

SW 131 60.5 7.7 40.2 39 151

Tubbs (OR 939526)

SW 131 59.8 7.8 43.3 41 150

Madsen

SW 130 60.5 7.6 39.1 41 150

IDO-588

CF-SW 129 61.0 8.3 49.0 42 145

Brundage-96

SW 127 59.4 7.3 39.9 39 149

Hubbard (ID10420A)

SW 127 60.6 7.1 40.7 44 149

Finch (WA7855)

SW 126 60.3 7.4 37.6 39 151

Gene

SW 126 59.8 8.8 43.8 37 147

OR 951431

SW 125 61.4 8.1 41.0 41 149

OR 9900548

SW 124 59.8 7.2 44.3 39 149

OR 2010010

CF-SW 123 60.8 8.7 45.7 38 147

Malcolm

SW 123 60.9 7.3 45.9 40 149

Stephens

SW 123 59.7 7.7 49.5 37 147

Yamhill

SW 120 59.1 7.8 43.8 45 150

Foote

SW 118 61.1 8.1 46.8 40 148

IDO-576

SW 116 61.2 7.6 35.7 39 149

Rod

SW 106 59.9 7.1 41.1 36 151

Lambert

SW 105 60.3 8.2 45.8 46 148

Alzo

Trit 146 57.8 7.6 44.1 51 145

Bogo

Trit 128 55.4 7.6 37.9 47 148

Mean


125 60.4 7.8 40.6 41 149

LSD (0.05)


20 0.6 0.5 1.9

*HR = hard red, HW = hard white, SW = soft white, Trit = triticale.

Adjusted to 10 percent moisture, 60 lb/bu.

CF = Clearfield herbicide resistant.

Table 2. Winter barley yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight (TKW), height at maturity, day of 50 percent heading, and lodging percentage, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2002.


Market
Test


Heading

Variety

class* Yield weight Protein TKW Height day


lb/acre lb/bu % g in

Strider

6RF 5,452 51.4 9.1 40.9 42 136

Kold

6RF 4,550 51.7 8.9 35.2 37 138

Scio

6RF 3,939 50.4 9.1 39.6 40 135

Stab-113

6RF/M 4,487 51.3 8.5 34.6 38 134

Kab-37

6RF/M 4,270 51.4 8.5 36.7 38 140

Stab-7

6RF/M 1,250 52.5 9.4 36.7 42 131

Stab-47

6RF/M 576 52.6 9.7 36.5 45 132

Mean


3,503 51.6 9 37.1 40 135

LSD (0.05)


1,326 NS5 NS 3.4

*6RF = six-row feed, 6RF/M = six-row feed, may be evaluated for malt.

Adjusted to 10 percent moisture.

Yield reduced by heavy red-winged blackbird feeding.

Table 3. Spring barley and oat yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight (TKW), height at maturity, and day of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2002.


Market
Test


Heading

Variety

class* Yield weight Protein TKW Height day


lb/acre lb/bu % g in

Farmington

2RF 6,815 52.1 9.0 39.5 31 159

Xena

2RF 3,262 55.0 10.3 43.8 39 152

Orca

2RF 1,754 54.2 13.4 49.2 43 142

Harrington

2RM 4,757 52.3 11.2 41.1 41 156

Bancroft

2RM 3,202 55.0 12.2 45.0 40 152

Chinook

2RM 2,943 55.1 12.9 43.8 41 155

Garnet

2RM 2,796 51.8 11.5 43.2 39 160

Lamont

H Oat 3,871 44.0 15.6 21.1 51 164

Provena

H Oat 3,157 47.3 17.5 18.3 47 163

Monida

Oat 4,070 33.2 12.6 27.9 51 161

Cayuse

Oat 3,742 38.6 13.1 30.2 44 160

Mean


3,700 48.9 12.6 36.6 42 157

LSD (0.05)


1,585 2.5 1.6 2.7

*2R = two-row, F= feed, M = malt, H Oat = hull-less oat.

Adjusted to 10 percent moisture.

Table 4. Spring soft white wheat yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand Kernel weight (TKW), height at maturity, and day of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2002.


Market
Test


Heading

Variety

class* Yield weight Protein TKW Height day


bu/acre lb/bu % g in

IDO 556

Club 110 62.0 9.4 28.8 38 156

WA 007902

Club 109 61.0 8.5 32.8 41 155

Jefferson

HR 104 62.9 10.2 38.6 39 152

Winsome

HW 105 62.2 8.5 35.5 39 156

Challis

SW 116 61.8 8.1 39.9 37 153

Alpowa

SW 116 63.5 8.5 40.4 41 153

Jubilee

SW 115 60.9 8.9 33.5 41 155

Penawawa

SW 114 62.8 8.9 36.1 40 154

IDO 526

SW 113 61.3 8.0 37.8 37 152

WA 007905

SW 112 61.6 8.2 41.8 45 154

Whitebird

SW 112 60.9 8.3 31.8 42 156

ZAK

SW 109 61.2 8.8 38.7 43 157

Wawawai

SW 100 62.5 8.8 42.2 45 153

Mean


110 61.8 8.7 36.7 41 154

LSD (0.05)


NS 0.7 0.7 3.6

*HR = hard red, HW = hard white, SW = soft white.

Adjusted to 10 percent moisture, 60 lb/bu.

NS = not significant.

Table 5. Spring hard wheat yield, test weight, protein percentage, thousand kernel weight (TKW), height at maturity, and day of 50 percent heading, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2002.


Market
Test


Heading

Variety

class* Yield weight Protein TKW Height day


bu/acre lb/bu % g in

WPB-936

HR 111 63.5 10.0 42.0 37.0 153

Tara

HR 110 63.6 9.9 42.9 43.0 150

Yecora Rojo

HR 108 65.2 9.6 43.3 33.0 150

IDO 557

HR 102 63.1 10.1 33.4 35.0 151

Jefferson

HR 102 63.0 10.0 38.3 37.0 152

Hank

HR 101 62.9 10.8 43.2 37.0 151

IDO 566

HR 100 62.9 9.4 39.9 39.0 149

Scarlet

HR 98 63.3 9.5 39.7 45.0 156

Iona

HR 95 64.2 9.5 39.0 42.0 153

WA 007859

HR 88 63.3 11.0 41.1 43.0 153

Lolo

HW 116 64.2 9.6 41.8 39.0 155

ID 377S

HW 113 63.9 9.2 35.6 38.0 155

Winsome

HW 109 62.2 8.6 36.4 36.0 156

Macon

HW 107 64.0 9.4 39.3 40.0 152

WA 007900

HW 102 65.4 9.0 39.4 39.0 152

OR 4970018

HW 102 65.1 9.5 36.7 42.0 154

OR 4970025

HW 91 62.9 9.5 36.9 30.0 156

Sunco

HW 91 63.9 9.8 35.1 38.0 157

Alpowa

SW 119 63.7 8.5 37.5 39.0 153

Penawawa

SW 104 63.0 7.8 37.6 39.0 154

Mean


103 63.6 9.5 38.9 39.0 153

LSD (0.05)


16 0.8 1.1 3.5

*HR = hard red, HW = hard white, SW = soft white.

Adjusted to 10 percent moisture, 60 lb/bu.