Soybean Performance in Ontario in 2002

Erik B.G. Feibert, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

Introduction

Soybean is a potentially valuable new crop for Oregon. Soybean could provide a high quality protein for animal nutrition and oil for human consumption, both of which are in short supply in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). In addition, edible or vegetable soybean production could provide a raw material for specialized food products. Soybean is valuable as a rotation crop because of the soil-improving qualities of its residues and its N2 -fixing capability. Because of the high-value irrigated crops typically grown in the Snake River valley, soybeans may be economically feasible only at high yields.

Soybean varieties developed for the midwestern and southern states are not necessarily well adapted to Oregon's lower night temperatures, lower relative humidity, and other climatic differences. Previous research at Ontario, Oregon has shown that, compared to the commercial cultivars bred for the Midwest, plants for eastern Oregon need to have high tolerance to seed shatter and lodging, reduced plant height, increased seed set, and higher harvest index (ratio of seed to the whole plant).

M. Seddigh and G.D. Jolliff at Oregon State University, Corvallis identified a soybean line that would fill pods when subjected to cool night temperatures. That line was crossed at Corvallis with productive lines to produce 'OR-6' and 'OR-8', among others. At this point, the development moved to Ontario, Oregon. At our request 'OR-6' and 'OR-8' were crossed for several years with early-maturing high-yielding semi-dwarf lines by R.L. Cooper to produce semi-dwarf lines with potential adaptation to the PNW. Selection criteria at the Malheur Experiment Station included high yield, zero lodging, zero shatter, low plant height, and maturity in the available growing season. In 1992, 241 single plants were selected from five F5 lines that were originally bred and selected for adaptation to eastern Oregon. Seed from these selections was planted and evaluated in 1993. Eighteen selections were found promising and selected for further testing in larger plots from 1994 through 1999. Of the 18 lines, 8 were selected for further testing. In 1999, selections from one of the lines were made by Peter Sexton at the Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Madras, Oregon. Sixteen of these Madras selections were chosen for further testing. In 2000 selections were made from six of the 1992 Ontario lines and from 'OR-6'. This report summarizes work done in 2002 as part of the continuing breeding and selection program to adapt soybeans to eastern Oregon.

Methods

The trial was conducted on a Greenleaf silt loam previously planted to soybean. One hundred and forty lb of S, 2 lb of Cu, and 1 lb of B were broadcast in the fall of 2001. The field was then disked twice, moldboard plowed, groundhogged twice and bedded to 22-inch rows.

Three separate trials were conducted in 2002. Trial A consisted of five commercial cultivars, eight older lines selected at the Malheur Experiment Station in 1992, and nine lines selected in 1999 at the Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Trial B included 41 lines selected in 2000 at the Malheur Experiment Station. All cultivars in trials A and B were planted in plots 4 rows by 25 ft. The plots in each trial were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Trial C included another 25 lines that were selected in 2000 at the Malheur Experiment Station and were planted in plots 4 rows by 25 ft with one replicate. The seed was planted on May 24 at 200,000 seeds/acre in rows 22 inches apart. Seed was treated with Apro Maxx fungicide. Rhizobium japonicum soil implant inoculant was applied in the seed furrow at planting. Emergence started on May 30. The field was furrow irrigated as necessary. The field was sprayed with Orthene at 1 lb ai/acre on July 20 for lygus bug and stinkbug control. The field was sprayed again on August 14 with Dimethoate at 0.5 lb ai/acre for stinkbug, lygus bug, and spider mite control.

Plant height and reproductive stage were measured weekly for each cultivar. Stand counts were made in 3 ft of the middle two rows in each plot. Prior to harvest, each plot was evaluated for lodging and seed shatter. Lodging was rated as the degree to which the plants were leaning over (0 = vertical, 10 = prostrate). The middle two rows in each four-row plot were harvested on October 7 using a Wintersteiger Nurserymaster small plot combine. Beans were cleaned, weighed, and oven dried to determine moisture content. Dry bean yields were corrected to 13 percent moisture. Variety lodging, plant population, yield, and seed count were compared by analysis of variance. Means separation was determined by the protected least significant difference test.

Results and Discussion

Yields for trial A ranged from 45 bu/acre for 'OR-8' to 74 bu/acre for 'M15' (Table 1). Yields for trial B ranged from 36 bu/acre for '1003' to 73 bu/acre for '106' (Table 2). Yields for trial C ranged from 40 bu/acre for '904' to 66 bu/acre for '308' and '515' (Table 3). Several of the lines had seed counts sufficient for the manufacturing of tofu (<2,270 seeds/lb). Several lines in each trial combined high yields, little lodging, and early maturity. Considerable yield advantages were obtained through continued selection.

Table 1. Performance of soybean cultivars in trial A, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR. Cultivars M92-085 through M92-350 are from single plant selections made at the Malheur Experiment Station in 1992. Cultivars M1 through M16 are from single plant selections made from M92-330 by Peter Sexton at the Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Madras, OR in 1999.

Cultivar

Days to maturity

Days to harvest maturity

Plant population

Lodging

Height

Seed count

Yield


days from emergence plants/acre 0-10 cm seeds/lb bu/acre
M92-085 99 105 78753 5 80 2286 64.1
M92-213 105 112 72417 1 80 2213 50.4
M92-220 99 105 87806 4 90 2667 69.4
M92-225 91 105 66986 6 80 2498 58.9
M92-237 105 112 90521 7 80 2673 58.2
M92-314 105 112 72417 6 90 2949 50.9
M92-330 91 105 84185 4 80 2311 61.2
M92-350 91 105 78753 7 80 2751 55
OR-6 99 105 66986 9 90 2378 51.5
OR-8 105 112 73322 9 70 2202 45.3
Evans 105 112 79659 9 90 2407 51.3
Gnome 85 99 105 69701 8 80 2292 60
Korada 99 105 81469 6 75 2475 67.2
Lambert 105 112 82374 8 80 2385 62.9
Sibley 112 119 77848 9 75 2242 51
M1 91 105 81469 6 70 2426 65.7
M2 99 105 82374 6 85 2263 65
M3 99 105 83279 6 80 2523 63.7
M4 99 105 79659 5 70 2453 66.1
M9 99 105 85090 6 70 2331 66.3
M12 91 105 80564 5 75 2146 65.7
M13 91 105 71512 6 80 2475 70.4
M15 99 105 66080 6 80 2353 73.8
M16 91 105 89616 4 90 2263 65.7
LSD (0.05)

NS 2
232 10.1

Table 2. Performance of soybean cultivars in trial B. All lines are from single plant selections made at the Malheur Experiment Station in 2000, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Cultivar

Origin

Days to maturity

Days to harvest maturity

Plant population

Lodging

Height

Seed count

Yield



days from emergence plants/acre 0-10 cm seeds/lb bu/acre
101 M92-085 99 105 83,279 6 80 2102 68.6
103 M92-085 91 105 84,185 6 80 2202 69.6
104 M92-085 91 105 72,417 6 80 2263 66.3
106 M92-085 91 105 92,332 6 80 2152 72.9
107 M92-085 91 105 85,090 6 70 2263 66.9
108 M92-085 91 105 81,469 5 75 2202 68.1
303 M92-220 99 105 73,322 4 90 2324 64.2
305 M92-220 99 105 91,426 2 80 2324 68.8
307 M92-220 99 105 92,332 3 90 2324 69.1
309 M92-220 99 105 83,279 4 90 2461 65.3
313 M92-220 105 112 88,711 5 95 2385 63.6
401 M92-225 99 105 84,185 3 70 2599 54.9
402 M92-225 91 105 80,564 6 65 2446 56
403 M92-225 91 105 89,616 5 80 2102 68
404 M92-225 84 91 83,279 8 70 2599 58.7
405 M92-225 84 91 86,900 8 70 2599 60.4
406 M92-225 91 105 69,701 6 80 2446 54.4
407 M92-225 91 105 72,417 6 70 2538 53.3
409 M92-225 99 105 88,711 6 80 2446 53.2
411 M92-225 84 91 81,469 5 70 2523 57.4
412 M92-225 91 105 76,038 5 60 2676 55.5
413 M92-225 91 99 37,511 7 70 2385 55.1
414 M92-225 105 112 79,659 6 85 2523 59.9
505 M92-237 105 112 76,038 9 90 2324 43.5
508 M92-237 105 112 84,185 8 90 2446 52
510 M92-237 105 112 81,469 6 90 2385 62.5
511 M92-237 99 105 79,659 3 90 2461 67.2
512 M92-237 105 112 84,185 9 90 2461 50.9
513 M92-237 105 112 83,279 9 90 2385 46.6
514 M92-237 84 91 90,521 2 80 2202 66.4
516 M92-237 84 91 82,374 3 60 2324 66
517 M92-237 91 105 77,848 9 80 2324 52.8
518 M92-237 99 105 84,185 2 70 2324 63.3
601 M92-314 99 105 91,426 2 90 2385 68.5
608 M92-314 91 105 77,848 6 80 2163 68.2
702 M92-330 99 105 84,185 9 80 2202 63
903 OR-6 91 105 87,806 9 70 2324 49.9
909 OR-6 99 105 80,564 8 90 2263 53.3
1001 OR-6 105 112 76,943 9 80 2102 39.4
1002 OR-6 112 112 82,374 10 90 2202 41.2
1003 OR-6 112 112 89,616 9 95 2213 36
LSD (0.05)


NS 2

6.5

Table 3. Performance of soybean cultivars in trial C. All lines are from single plant selections made at the Malheur Experiment Station in 2000, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Cultivar Origin Days to maturity* Lodging Height Seed count Yield



0-10 cm seeds/lb bu/acre
308 M92-220 105 0 90 2446 65.7
311 M92-220 105 0 95 2202 60.4
312 M92-220 105 1 95 2202 64.7
408 M92-225 91 4 80 2446 50.5
415 M92-225 99 7 80 2446 56.3
504 M92-237 91 7 80 2446 57.6
515 M92-237 91 2 85 2202 65.7
904 OR-6 99 9 80 2202 39.6
905 OR-6 99 9 80 2202 48.6
908 OR-6 99 10 80 2202 46.0
911 OR-6 99 9 80 2446 46.3
912 OR-6 99 9 80 2202 41.8
202 M92-213 105 0 90 2202 55.2
203 M92-213 105 0 95 2202 55.5
204 M92-213 105 0 90 2001 48.0
205 M92-213 105 3 90 2202 55.5
206 M92-213 105 0 90 2001 49.5
207 M92-213 105 3 90 2202 50.1
208 M92-213 105 0 95 1835 56.1
209 M92-213 105 1 95 2202 43.3
210 M92-213 105 3 90 2446 52.0
211 M92-213 105 1 90 2001 55.2
212 M92-213 105 1 90 2202 52.2
213 M92-213 105 3 90 2001 53.1
214 M92-213 105 1 90 2001 46.7

*Days from emergence.