Sugar Beet Variety 2004 Testing Results

Sugar Beet Variety 2004 Testing Results

 

 

Eric Eldredge, Clinton Shock, and Monty Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

 

 

Introduction

 

The sugar beet industry, in cooperation with Oregon State University, tests commercial and experimental sugar beet varieties at multiple locations each year to identify varieties with high sugar yield and root quality. A seed advisory committee evaluates the data each year to select the best varieties for sugar beet production. This report provides the agronomic practices, experimental procedures, and sugar beet root yield and quality for the Malheur Experiment Station location of the 2004 trials.

 

Methods

 

Sugar beet varieties were entered by ACH Seeds, Betaseed, Hilleshog/Syngenta, Holly Hybrids, and Seedex in 2004. Twenty-nine varieties were tested in the Commercial Trial, and 31 varieties (including the 4 commercial check varieties) were tested in the Experimental Trial. Seed for the Commercial Trial was organized by Amalgamated Sugar Company. Seed of Experimental varieties was sent by the seed companies.

 

The sugar beet trials were grown on an Owyhee silt loam that had grown winter wheat the year before. The grain stubble was chopped and the field was irrigated and disked, then 60 lb nitrogen (N)/acre, 50 lb phosphate (P2O5)/acre, 80 lb potash (K2O)/acre, 57 lb sulfur (S)/acre, 8 lb zinc (Zn)/acre, 5 lb copper (Cu)/acre, and 3 lb boron (B)/acre were applied according to fall soil sampling results. The field was then disked, ripped, plowed, and groundhogged. On November 7, the soil was fumigated with Telone C17® at 15 gal/acre, and fall bedded on 22-inch rows.

 

On March 30, the beds were dragged off using a spike-tooth bed harrow with 3.75-inch angle iron furrow slickers. Preplant herbicide Nortron® at 6 pint/acre was applied and incorporated using the bed harrow. Both the Experimental Trial and the Commercial Trial were planted on April 1. Seeds were planted in four-row plots with John Deere model 71 flexi-planter units with double disc furrow openers and cone seeders fed from a spinner divider that uniformly distributed the seed. Plots of each variety were 4 rows wide (22-inch row spacing) by 23 ft long, with a 4-ft alley separating each tier of plots. The seeding rate was 12 viable seed/ft of row. Each entry was replicated eight times in a randomized complete block design.

 

 A soil test taken on April 4, 2004, showed pH 7.8, 2.9 percent organic matter, 32 lb nitrate (NO3)/acre available in the top 2ft of soil, 20 ppm extractable phosphorus (P), 256 ppm exchangeable potassium (K), 10 ppm sulfate (SO4), 433 ppm magnesium (Mg), 82 ppm sodium (Na), 4.1 ppm Zn, 5 ppm iron (Fe), 1 ppm manganese (Mn), 0.6 ppm Cu, and 0.8 ppm B.

 

On April 5 Counter 20CR® was applied in a band over the row at 7.4 lb/acre (5 oz/1,000 ft of row). The first irrigation was applied on April 9, for 24 hours. A 44.5-hour irrigation on April 12 that was applied to wet the seed rows for more uniform germination was followed by 0.9 inch of rain April 19-21. On April 27, Poast® herbicide was applied at 2 pint/acre to control grasses and volunteer wheat. On May 4, a tank mix of Betamix® at 32 oz/acre, Upbeet® at 0.5 oz/acre, and Stinger® at 3 oz/acre was applied for weed control. Seedlings were thinned by hand to 1 plant every 6.4 inches on May 10 and 11. On May 11 the plots of two entries in the Experimental Trial that failed to emerge were replanted with the border variety, PM21.

 

The field was sidedressed with Temik 15G® at 10 lb/acre on May 13 to control sugar beet root maggot, and the field was irrigated for 24 hours to move the insecticide with the wetting front into the sugar beet seedlings' root zone. On May 25, urea was sidedressed to supply 182 lb N/acre. On May 27 the field was cultivated and recorrugated with 9-inch sweeps ahead of 6-inch angle iron furrow slickers. On June 1, Treflan® herbicide was applied at 1.5 pint/acre and incorporated with the same cultivator.

 

The field was furrow irrigated with surge irrigation from gated pipe. Irrigation was monitored with Watermark soil moisture sensors Model 200SS (Irrometer Co. Inc., Riverside, CA) connected to an AM400 Hansen datalogger (M.K. Hansen Co., Wenatchee, WA) to maintain the soil water potential wetter than -70 centibar (kPa) at 10-inch depth in the beet row.

 

A petiole test was taken on June 14, and Thio-Sul® was applied in the irrigation water on June 21 to supply 25 lb N plus 33 lb SO4/acre. Headline® fungicide was applied at 12 oz/acre by aerial applicator on June 25 for control of powdery mildew. On June 28, a second petiole test was taken and the field was recorrugated the final time. On July 6, 20 lb N/acre, 10 lb P2O5/acre, 10 lb SO4/acre, 0.25 lb Zn/acre, and 0.2 lb B/acre were applied in the irrigation water. A third petiole test was taken on July 12, and on July 15, 5 lb Mg/acre, 7 lb SO4/acre, and 0.5 lb B/acre were applied in the irrigation water. On July 17, Topsin-M® fungicide at 20 oz/acre was applied by airplane in a spray mixture that included S at 6 lb/acre, P2O5 at 1.5 lb/acre, and Zn at 0.2 lb/acre. An aerial application of Headline fungicide at 12 oz/acre plus sulfur at 6 lb/acre was applied on August 8.

 

The final irrigation was applied on September 2. Visual estimates of curly top virus and powdery mildew foliar symptoms were recorded for each plot in the Experimental Trial on September 10, and for each plot in the Commercial Trial on September 16. Bolted beets were counted when the disease ratings were made.

 

Sugar beets were harvested from the Experimental Trial on October 13 and 14, and from the Commercial Trial on October 14 and 15. The foliage was flailed and the crowns were removed with rotating knives. All sugar beets in the center two rows of each plot were dug with a two-row wheel-lifter harvester and weighed, and two eight-beet samples were taken from each plot. Samples were delivered each day to the Snake River Sugar factory in Nyssa for laboratory analysis of percent sucrose, nitrate concentration, and conductivity.

 

The root weight data were examined for outliers as is customary for calculations of sugar beet variety data by Amalgamated in these trials. Observations more than two standard deviations from the mean for each variety were deleted. Sugar sample data were checked for errors in sugar percentages and conductivity. Any erroneous sample readings were deleted from the data set. The companion samples of all missing or deleted sugar data were good, so no plots were lost due to sugar sample errors.

 

The weight of sugar beets from each plot was multiplied by 0.90 to estimate tare. Sugar concentrations were "factored" by multiplying measured sucrose by 0.98 to estimate the sugar that would have been lost to respiration if the beets had been stored in a pile. The data for each plot with two samples were averaged for analysis. The percent extraction was calculated using the formula:

 

Ext = 250 + [(1,255.2 * Cond) - (15,000 * Sug) - 6,185] / Sug * (98.66 - 7.845 * Cond)

 

where Ext is percent extraction, Cond is the electrical conductivity in mmho, and Sug is the sugar concentration in percent.

 

Variety differences in yield, sucrose content, conductivity, percent extraction, and estimated recoverable sugar were calculated using least-squares means analysis. Sugar beet performance in both trials was compared to the check varieties ACH Seeds 'Crystal 217R', Betaseed 'Beta 4490 R', Hilleshog/Syngenta 'HM2986 Rz', and Seedex 'Raptor Rz'. Reports of previous years' Oregon State University variety trials are available online at www.cropinfo.net.

 

Results

 

Early stand establishment was slow and erratic. The sixth irrigation, on June 29 (the first irrigation in the wheel furrows), was effective in wetting the soil and the soil moisture sensors responded to the irrigation (Fig. 1). Surge irrigation approximately once a week maintained soil water potential wetter than -60 kPa through most of the growing season.

 

Powdery mildew infection developed on sugar beet foliage in these trials and in neighboring growers' fields. Curly top virus foliar symptoms were more severe in the beets this year than is usually seen (Table 1). In the Experimental Trial, Beta ‘3YK0019’, Beta ‘4YK0023’, Crystal ‘318R’, and Beta ‘4YK0024’ were among the varieties showing the most severe curly top virus foliar symptoms. SX Raptor RZ, SX ‘1522’, Crystal 217R, and ‘04HX431RZ’ were among the varieties showing the most severe powdery mildew symptoms in the Experimental Trial. In the Commercial Trial, Beta ‘4035R’, Crystal ‘9906R’, Beta ‘4490R’, and Beta ‘4614R’ were among the varieties showing the most severe curly top virus foliar symptoms. Beta ‘4614R’, Crystal

217R, Crystal ‘333R’, and ‘Beta ‘4773R’ were among the varieties showing the most severe powdery mildew symptoms in the Commercial Trial.

 

Variety results were grouped by seed company for the Commercial Trial (Table 2) and the Experimental Trial (Table 3). Within each seed company's varieties, the varieties are ranked in descending order of estimated recoverable sugar in pounds per acre. The root weights were tared 10 percent in 2004; in previous years, a root tare of 5 percent had been applied. The truck loads of border row beets delivered to the Nyssa factory in 2004 from the same field, dug with the same harvester, ranged from 5 to 7.9 percent tare, and averaged 6.5 percent tare.

 

Root yield in the Commercial Trial averaged 42.98 tared ton/acre, average sugar content was 17.95 percent, and average estimated recoverable sugar was 13,345 lb/acre. The varieties yielding among the highest estimated recoverable sugar in the Commercial Trial were 'Beta 8600', with 14,867 lb/acre, Holly Hybrids 'Acclaim R’ with 14,217 lb/A, and Seedex ‘Cascade' with 14,192 lb/acre.

 

Data for the Experimental Trial are reported in Table 3. Root yield in the Experimental Trial averaged 43.37 tared ton/acre, average sugar content was 17.64 percent, and average estimated recoverable sugar was 13,144 lb/acre. The varieties yielding among the highest estimated recoverable sugar in the Experimental Trial were 'HMPM90' with 14,228 lb/acre, ‘HM2993Rz’ with 13,933 lb/acre, '04HX422 R' with 13,920 lb/acre, 'Beta 4YK0024' with 13,760 lb/acre, ‘04HX438 R' with 13,733 lb/acre, ‘HM 2995Rz’ with 13,680 lb/acre, ‘Beta 2YK0016’ with 13,607 lb/acre, and 'HM 2992Rz' with 13,

Figure 1. Sugar beet trials average soil water potential of six Watermark soil moisture sensors read by an AM400 Hanson datalogger, Oregon State University, Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR, 2004.

Table 1. Visual evaluations of foliar disease symptoms and bolting in sugar beet varieties, Oregon State University, Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR, 2004.

 

Experimental Trial

 

Commercial Trial

10 September

CT†

PM‡

Bolt§

 

16 September

CT†

PM‡

Bolt§

HM2986RZ

1.8

1.6

0.0

 

HM1642

2.3

2.3

0.0

HM2991 RZ

4.0

1.8

0.0

 

HM2980RZ

4.1

1.8

0.0

HM2992 RZ

3.9

1.5

0.0

 

HM2984RZ

1.9

2.4

0.0

HM2993 RZ

0.9

1.4

0.0

 

HM2986RZ

1.9

2.2

0.0

HM2994 RZ

0.9

1.9

0.0

 

HM2988RZ

3.8

1.6

0.0

HM2995 RZ

2.9

1.9

0.0

 

HM2989RZ

2.4

2.3

0.0

HM PM90

0.8

1.5

0.0

 

HM Alliance

1.4

2.4

0.4

PM21 replant

1.9

1.2

0.0

 

HM Oasis

0.9

1.5

0.0

PM21 replant

1.5

1.1

0.0

 

HM Owyhee

1.2

2.4

0.0

03HX353RZ

1.2

1.8

0.0

 

HM PM21

0.8

1.4

0.0

04HX422RZ

1.9

1.8

0.4

 

Acclaim RZ

1.8

1.4

0.0

04HX431RZ

1.3

2.3

7.4

 

Eagle RZ

2.5

2.0

0.0

04HX434RZ

1.8

1.8

0.4

 

HH142 RZ

4.3

1.1

0.0

04HX436RZ

2.3

2.0

0.0

 

Meridian RZ

1.9

1.9

0.0

04HX437RZ

1.6

1.3

1.3

 

Phoenix RZ

3.3

2.1

0.0

04HX438RZ

2.2

1.9

0.0

 

Cascade

0.9

0.9

0.0

SX Raptor RZ

3.6

3.0

0.0

 

Puma

1.2

2.5

0.0

SX1521

2.7

2.1

0.0

 

Raptor RZ

4.8

2.5

0.0

SX1522

2.6

2.7

0.0

 

ACH Mustang

2.0

2.5

0.0

Crystal 217R

1.8

2.3

0.8

 

Crystal 217R

2.3

3.3

0.0

Crystal 316R

1.1

2.0

0.0

 

Crystal333R

3.5

3.0

0.0

Crystal 318R

4.5

1.4

0.0

 

Crystal9906R

5.8

2.9

0.0

Crystal 411R

1.4

1.8

0.0

 

Beta 4035R

6.4

2.8

0.0

Crystal 412R

1.3

1.4

0.0

 

Beta 4199R

5.0

2.5

0.0

Beta4490R

3.6

1.6

0.0

 

Beta 4490R

5.8

2.3

0.0

Beta 2YK0016

1.4

1.6

0.0

 

Beta 4614R

5.1

3.8

0.0

Beta 3YK0019

5.8

1.9

0.0

 

Beta 4773R

1.8

3.0

0.0

Beta 3YK0020

1.5

1.4

0.0

 

Beta 8220B

2.9

2.4

0.0

Beta 4YK0023

5.3

1.8

0.0

 

Beta 8600

2.3

1.1

0.0

Beta 4YK0024

4.5

1.1

0.0

 

Mean

2.9

2.2

0.0

Beta 4YK0025

3.6

1.5

0.0

 

LSD (0.05)

1.3

0.8

0.1

Mean

2.4

1.7

0.3

 

 

 

 

 

LSD (0.05)

1.3

0.9

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

†Average curly top virus symptom severity rating from 0 (none) to 10.

‡Average powdery mildew fungus symptom severity rating from 0 (none) to 10.

§Average number of bolted beets per 4-row plot, 23 feet long.

 

Table 2. Commercial sugar beet variety root yield, sugar content, root quality, recoverable sugar, and nitrate content from varieties entered in the trial at Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2004.

 

 

Root

Sugar

Gross

Conduc-

Extrac-

Estimated

Nitrate

 

yield

content

sugar

tivity

tion

recoverable sugar

content

Variety

ton/acre

%

lb/acre

mmho

%

lb/ton

lb/acre

ppm

ACH Seeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACH Mustang

44.83

17.79

15,931

0.701

85.79

305.1

13,666

119

Crystal 9906R

40.09

17.99

14,415

0.571

87.51

314.8

12,614

102

Crystal 217R

39.05

18.44

14,417

0.661

86.41

318.8

12,457

136

Crystal 333R

36.93

18.34

13,546

0.691

86.00

315.4

11,647

95

Betaseed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beta 8600

47.71

17.99

17,158

0.638

86.65

311.8

14,867

106

Beta 4199R

42.97

18.21

15,650

0.678

86.16

313.8

13,482

110

Beta 8220B

43.14

18.19

15,687

0.721

85.59

311.6

13,430

112

Beta 4035R

44.19

17.50

15,459

0.633

86.62

303.2

13,392

126

Beta 4490R

41.52

18.60

15,436

0.662

86.43

321.5

13,340

85

Beta 4773R

39.51

18.53

14,654

0.649

86.59

321.0

12,691

112

Beta 4614R

41.92

17.15

14,374

0.611

86.83

297.8

12,481

110

Hilleshog/Syngenta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HM 1642

42.24

18.81

15,887

0.578

87.55

329.3

13,908

111

HM Owyhee

43.73

18.19

15,910

0.613

87.00

316.6

13,842

113

HM 2989Rz

43.32

18.43

15,962

0.661

86.42

318.6

13,794

149

HM PM21

42.88

18.29

15,680

0.579

87.45

319.9

13,711

110

HM 2986Rz

42.13

18.46

15,550

0.597

87.25

322.2

13,569

104

HM Alliance

42.07

18.26

15,365

0.554

87.76

320.5

13,486

108

HM Oasis

42.68

17.93

15,316

0.593

87.21

312.8

13,359

123

HM 2980Rz

42.59

18.00

15,310

0.678

86.12

310.1

13,183

131

HM 2984Rz

42.73

17.77

15,192

0.630

86.70

308.2

13,173

141

HM 2988Rz

40.56

18.24

14,798

0.562

87.66

319.7

12,971

144

Holly Hybrids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acclaim R

48.63

17.13

16,662

0.727

85.32

292.4

14,217

146

Phoenix R

47.30

17.11

16,174

0.678

85.96

294.1

13,900

138

Meridian R

46.49

17.28

16,063

0.676

86.02

297.3

13,817

162

Eagle R

45.93

17.18

15,763

0.704

85.62

294.1

13,497

123

HH 142 R

42.53

17.28

14,681

0.708

85.59

295.8

12,567

151

Seedex

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SX Cascade

45.69

17.71

16,178

0.550

87.72

310.8

14,192

101

SX Puma

41.40

18.04

14,932

0.588

87.29

315.0

13,032

123

SX Raptor Rz

42.04

17.77

14,927

0.665

86.25

306.5

12,873

150

Mean

42.98

17.95

15,412

0.640

86.60

311.0

13,345

122

LSD (0.05)

2.51

0.50

914

0.040

0.55

9.6

792

43

LSD (0.10)

2.11

0.42

766

0.034

0.46

8.1

664

36

CV   (%)

5.9

2.8

6.0

6.3

0.6

3.1

6.0

35.6

 

 

Table 3. Experimental sugar beet variety root yield, sugar content, root quality, recoverable sugar, and nitrate content from varieties entered in the trial at Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2004.

 

 

Root

Sugar

Gross

Conduc-

Extrac-

Estimated

Nitrate

 

yield

content

sugar

tivity

tion

recoverable sugar

content

Variety

ton/acre

%

lb/acre

mmho

%

lb/ton

lb/acre

ppm

ACH Seeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crystal 316R

45.29

17.39

15,720

0.710

85.59

297.7

13,450

168

Crystal 318R

43.00

17.61

15,144

0.513

88.17

310.5

13,354

144

Crystal 411R

44.28

17.44

15,443

0.768

84.85

296.0

13,101

166

Crystal 412R

42.71

17.50

14,951

0.759

84.96

297.4

12,705

170

Crystal 217R

41.28

17.48

14,440

0.721

85.46

298.8

12,344

233

Betaseed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beta 4YK0024

45.03

17.79

16,021

0.693

85.89

305.6

13,760

126

Beta 2YK0016

45.61

17.55

15,993

0.751

85.09

298.8

13,607

223

Beta 4YK0023

42.19

18.37

15,467

0.656

86.46

317.7

13,367

137

Beta 3YK0019

43.72

17.78

15,532

0.706

85.71

304.8

13,312

177

Beta 4490R

42.59

18.06

15,377

0.714

85.65

309.4

13,170

163

Beta 4YK0025

42.19

17.94

15,129

0.681

86.08

308.9

13,021

158

Beta 3YK0020

43.67

17.13

14,958

0.711

85.53

293.1

12,793

170

Hilleshog/Syngenta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HM PM90

44.48

18.38

16,354

0.616

87.00

319.9

14,228

190

HM 2993Rz

47.33

17.25

16,328

0.728

85.33

294.5

13,933

219

HM 2995Rz

44.86

17.68

15,846

0.657

86.34

305.2

13,680

176

HM 2992Rz

44.71

17.64

15,773

0.680

86.03

303.5

13,572

176

HM 2986Rz

42.87

17.90

15,342

0.646

86.52

309.8

13,274

149

HM 2991Rz

40.99

18.22

14,931

0.547

87.85

320.2

13,116

138

HM 2994Rz

39.69

17.88

14,199

0.715

85.61

306.2

12,157

189

Holly Hybrids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

04HX422 R

49.51

16.46

16,286

0.706

85.46

281.4

13,920

209

04HX438 R

48.02

16.68

16,017

0.688

85.74

286.1

13,733

191

04HX437 R

45.70

17.11

15,627

0.759

84.90

290.5

13,266

250

04HX434 R

43.06

17.70

15,245

0.613

86.92

307.7

13,251

201

04HX436 R

44.39

17.26

15,316

0.733

85.26

294.4

13,061

217

03HX353 R

40.12

17.93

14,384

0.602

87.10

312.3

12,528

141

04HX431 R

38.44

17.43

13,385

0.649

86.39

301.1

11,561

205

Seedex

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SX Raptor Rz

43.03

17.43

14,992

0.697

85.77

299.1

12,853

206

SX1522

39.54

18.37

14,526

0.634

86.76

318.8

12,601

172

SX1521

39.71

18.15

14,408

0.663

86.34

313.5

12,441

187

Mean

43.37

17.64

15,280

0.680

86.03

303.6

13,144

181

LSD (0.05)

2.50

0.45

886

0.048

0.67

9.3

763

51

LSD (0.10)

2.10

0.38

742

0.040

0.56

7.8

639

43

CV   (%)

5.8

2.6

5.8

7.0

0.8

3.1

5.8

28.4