Effect of Irrigation Systems and Criteria on Potato Performance in Oregon

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND CULTURAL PRACTICES ON POTATO PERFORMANCE

 

 

Andre B. Pereira, Clinton C. Shock, Eric P. Eldredge,

Cedric A. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

 

 

Introduction

 

Methods of irrigation used in potato production must ensure adequate and uniform application of water with minimum losses, such as deep percolation and runoff. Maintenance of a proper balance between soil water and soil air in the root zone for ideal root and tuber growth can be achieved by careful management of irrigation scheduling with properly designed furrow-, sprinkler-, and drip-irrigation systems.

 

Surveys of growers in the Treasure Valley of southeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho indicated that 'Russet Burbank' tends to produce better quality tubers under sprinkler irrigation than with furrow irrigation (Shock et al. 1989, Trout et al. 1994).  Shock conducted two replicated plot trials and two field demonstrations in growers’ fields and Trout et al. (1994) carried out irrigation plot studies over 3 years on two sites to determine if the differences observed between sprinkler and furrow were an inherent result of the irrigation method.  With precise irrigation scheduling, irrigation method did not affect yields, but sprinkler irrigation produced tubers with slightly better grade and much lower incidence of sugar ends.

 

Although potato is still most often irrigated using sprinkler irrigation, drip systems are used in potato production in a few areas where water is in short supply.  Sammis (1980) compared sprinkler, surface drip, subsurface drip, and furrow irrigation for the production of potato and lettuce in New Mexico.  The subsurface drip system with an irrigation criterion, meaning the point at which the next irrigation must be applied, corresponding to a soil water tension (SWT) of 20 kPa was the most productive among the irrigation systems assessed.

 

Shock et al. (2002) investigated the performance of ‘Umatilla Russet’ under drip irrigation in silt loam.  The factors considered in the study were tape placement (one tape per row or one tape per two rows) and four SWT levels for automatically starting irrigation (15, 30, 45, and 60 kPa).  Tape placement and irrigation criterion interacted to influence total yield, total marketable potatoes, and U.S. No. 2 yield.  Results from this study indicated that potato should be irrigated at 30 kPa SWT, given the silt loam soil and 2.5 mm water applied at each irrigation.  Eldredge et al. (1996) and Shock et al. (2002) determined that the ideal potato SWT irrigation criterion for furrow and sprinkler irrigation was 50-60 kPa on silt loam in the Treasure Valley.

Over the last 4-5 years, drip-irrigated potato trials carried out at the Malheur Experiment Station (MES) have shown reasonable tuber yields and grade (Shock et al. 2002, 2004, 2005; Akin et al. 2003).  Although potato production normally uses hilled planting, our drip-irrigated trials have used flat beds.  The flat beds have been used by preference, since we have studied the relative lateral placement of potato rows and drip tapes (Shock et al. 2002, 2004, 2005) along with other variables.  If growers were to adopt drip irrigation, it would be more convenient if they could use drip irrigation in normal hilled beds. 

 

Consequently, in 2004 hilled beds for sprinkler- and drip-irrigated potatoes were compared with flat beds with drip-irrigated potatoes (Shock et al. 2005). Potatoes planted in flat beds with one drip tape above the rows were more productive and of better quality than drip-irrigated potatoes grown in conventional beds.  These results led us to propose that part of the benefits in potato quality observed with drip irrigation at Ontario over the past years might be associated with flat bed configuration and not with drip irrigation alone, per se.

 

Midmore et al. (1986) showed that mulch increased tuber yield by 20 percent during the summer in Peru.  In the same country, Manrique and Meyer (1984) studied the impact of mulch on potato production during winter and summer seasons and found no effect on yields during the winter, but observed yield increases of 58 percent and improvements in soil moisture retention in the summer with surface mulch.  Mahmood et al. (2002) reported that the use of mulch in Pakistan decreased daily maximum soil temperature at 6-inch depth, resulting in faster emergence, earlier canopy development, and higher tuber yields.

 

Since tuber yield and grade are affected by soil water status and heat stress, the main goal of this research was to investigate whether irrigation systems, irrigation criteria, bed configuration, and use of straw mulch can generate differences in soil temperature regime around the developing tubers, and quantify the influence of such management practice factors on the performance of six potato cultivars grown during the crop season of 2005 at Ontario, Oregon.

 

Materials and Methods

 

The soil preparation for this trial differed from our usual practices.  The soil was too wet to work or fumigate in the fall of 2004.  Vapam® was applied at 75 gal/acre via sprinklers on March 3, 2005 and the field was spring bedded in April prior to planting.  The summer weather pattern in 2005 was similar to 2004 and also similar to the 10- and 60-year averages.

 

Six irrigation and bed configuration treatments were chosen to try to use irrigation system, bed design, irrigation criteria, and straw mulch to reduce soil temperature, as described below:

 

T1 - Sprinkler irrigation, potato seeds planted in ordinary beds (rows bedded into 36-inch hills), with irrigation starting whenever the SWT was equal to 60 kPa;

T2 – Drip irrigation, potato seeds planted in flat beds, with irrigation criterion based on a SWT of 30 kPa, with the expectation that the total irrigation amounts would correspond to about 70 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc);

T3 – Drip irrigation, potato seeds planted in flat beds, with daily irrigation matching ETc;

T4 – Furrow irrigation, seeds planted in ordinary beds, with irrigation starting when SWT reached a threshold of 60 kPa;

T5 – Sprinkler irrigation, seeds planted flat in 36-inch rows, irrigation criterion of 60 kPa, and with irrigation amounts to match ETc;

T6 – Sprinkler irrigation, seeds planted flat in 36-inch rows, with irrigation starting at a SWT of 60 kPa, soil receiving 2,000 lb/acre of straw mulch at tuber initiation (on June 6), and irrigation amounts to match ETc.

 

All 6 treatments were replicated 7 times and the experimental design was split plot in a randomized complete block design, with a total of 42 plots and 252 subplots.

 

Six potato cultivars ('Russet Burbank', 'Ranger Russet', 'Umatilla Russet', 'GemStar Russet', 'A92294-6', and 'A93157-6LS') were planted on April 19, 2005 in 42 12-ft-wide strips, each 90 ft long at MES, Oregon State University, in Ontario, Oregon.  The planted harvest area of each cultivar was 30 seed pieces long.

 

Potato seed pieces (45 g) were treated with Tops-MZ + Gaucho® dust 1-2 weeks before planting, and then planted using a 2-row cup planter with 9-inch seed spacing in 36-inch rows.  Planting depth was adjusted to plant the seed in each flat bed plot deeper than the seed was planted in each hilled treatment plot.  After planting, hills were formed over the rows with a Lilliston rolling cultivator for the hilled treatment and a bed harrow for the flat bed treatments.  Prowl® at 1 lb/acre plus Dual® at 2 lb/acre herbicide was applied as a tank mix for weed control on May 2 and was incorporated by 1.7 inch of rain over the following 10 days. 

 

The soil temperature was measured continuously throughout the growing season in every plot at 4-inch depth below the surface in the plant row among the developing tubers using Hobo soil thermometers and dataloggers.  Twelve of the plots had two additional temperature sensors at 4- and 8-inch depth on NASA SensorWeb Pods (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA).  Four pods were located in each of the sprinkler-, drip-, and furrow-irrigated potato plots. 

 

The SWT was measured by granular matrix sensors (GMS, Watermark soil moisture sensors model 200SS, Irrometer, Co., Riverside, CA) at six locations in every plot at 8-inch depth below the surface in the plant row.  Sensor data were read automatically using CR10 and 21X dataloggers and multiplexers (Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT).  The GMS had been previously calibrated to SWT using tensiometers fitted with pressure transducers (Shock et al. 1998).

 

Irrigation episodes were scheduled to avoid SWT in the root zone exceeding the threshold of 30 kPa under drip system for treatments 2 and 3, and of 60 kPa under furrow- and sprinkler-irrigation systems for treatments 1, 4, 5, and 6.  Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated by an automated AgriMet (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, ID) station located about 0.25 miles from the trial on the Malheur Experiment Station.

 

Fungicide applications to control early blight and prevent late blight infection started with an aerial application of Ridomil Gold® and Bravo® at 1.5 pt/acre on June 13.  On June 18, Endura® plus Dithane® was applied; on June 28, Dithane fungicide plus liquid sulfur with 6 lb phosphate (P2O5)/acre was applied on June 28.  On July 20, Bravo was applied again on July 20 and September 6.  Dithane plus Tanos® was applied July 28.  To prevent two-spotted spider mite and powdery mildew infestation, 6 lb sulfur (S)/acre was applied on August 20.

 

Petiole tests were taken from Russet Burbank plants every 2 weeks starting on June 13 for the sprinkler-, furrow-, and drip-irrigated potatoes.  Potatoes in each irrigation system received nutrients in accordance with the petiole analyses. A total of 100 lb nitrogen (N)/acre, 40 lb P2O5/acre, 20 lb potash (K2O)/acre, 30 lb sulfate (SO4)/acre, 3.5 lb magnesium (Mg)/acre, 0.55 lb zinc (Zn)/acre, 0.8 lb manganese (Mn)/acre, 0.05 lb copper (Cu)/acre, 0.1 lb iron (Fe), and 0.02 lb boron (B)/acre was applied via drip irrigation system.  The furrow-irrigated potatoes received 100 lb N/acre, 30 lb P2O5/acre, 10 lb SO4/acre, 10 lb Mg/acre, 0.25 lb Zn/acre, 0.5 lb Mn/acre, and the sprinkler-irrigated potatoes received 100 lb N/acre, 50 lb P2O5/acre, 20 lb K2O/acre, 4.5 lb SO4/acre, 5 lb Mg/acre, 0.3 lb Zn/acre, 0.55 lb Mn/acre, 0.05 lb Cu/acre, 0.1 lb Fe/acre, and 0.02 lb B/acre.    

 

Vines were flailed on September 27 and tubers were harvested on October 18-21 from each replicate, and graded by the U.S. No. 1 and No. 2 for processing standards, sorted by weight, and weighed in each size category. Specific gravity and length-to-width ratio were measured using a sample of 10 tubers. Stem and bud ends fry color was measured on a sample of 20 tubers frying in 375°F soybean oil for 3.5 minutes from a sample of 20 tubers from each cultivar of every irrigation plot.  Fry colors were read using a Photovolt Reflectance Meter model 577 (Seradyn, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) with a green tristimulus filter, calibrated to read 0 percent light reflectance on the black standard cup and 73.6 percent light reflectance on the white porcelain standard plate.  Visual evaluations included observations of desirable traits, such as a high yield of large, smooth, uniformly shaped and sized, oblong to long, attractively russeted tubers, with shallow eyes evenly distributed over the tuber length.

 

Data were analyzed with the General Linear Models analysis of variance procedure in NCSS (Number Cruncher Statistical Systems, Kaysville, UT) using the Fisher’s Protected LSD means separation t-test at the 95 percent confidence level.

 

 

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

The results and discussion have not been formulated.  Most of the data have not been evaluated yet.  However, from the potato quality data (Table 1) we observe the following:

 

Irrigation systems and hilled rows made clear differences in potato performance among the cultivars studied.  The drip-irrigation systems were the most conducive to the production of U.S. No. 1 tubers and the furrow irrigation system was the least conducive.  Furrow irrigation was the least productive system tested.  There was a tendency for flat beds to be advantageous compared to hilled rows.  Not all of the statistical comparisons have been made.

 

None of the varieties tested expressed hollow heart, brown center, internal brownspot, or vascular discoloration in any of the irrigation treatments.  The absence of these internal defects is commonplace for potato grown at MES.

 

The experimental line A93157-6LS was highly productive in every management system and averaged 73 percent U.S. No. 1 tubers under both sprinkler and furrow irrigation, but there were 81 percent U.S. No. 1 tubers under drip irrigation, significantly more, regardless of the irrigation criteria adopted.

 

As in previous years, the experimental line A92294-6 had very high total and marketable yield under drip irrigation and about 70 percent U.S. No. 1 yield.  The total and marketable yields of cultivar A92294-6 were similar between drip- and sprinkler-irrigated treatments with flat beds, but with sprinklers, the proportion of U.S. No. 1 tubers was only 55 percent.

 

Under drip irrigation, the difference in irrigation criteria did not show effects on total and marketable yields.  Therefore, the application of full ETc for drip-irrigation systems may not be needed to maximize potato yield and optimize crop water use.  Firm conclusions will have to wait for the evaluations of how much water was actually applied to each treatment.

 

 As to mulching, there was a tendency for the straw mulch treatment to be advantageous compared to non-strawed potatoes.  Nevertheless, further statistical analyses, taking into consideration soil temperature and moisture, need to be made to allow for more consistent inferences on the beneficial effect of mulching for potato production at Ontario.  One result is clear: tubers from Umatilla Russet and A93157-6LS sprinkler-irrigated mulched rows planted flat were smoother than conventional sprinkler-irrigated hilled rows without mulch.

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

We would like to thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq) of Brazil for providing a Post-Doctoral scholarship, sabbatical leave granted by the State University of Ponta Grossa, a special grant by the Agricultural Research Foundation of Oregon State University (OSU), equipment donated by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and also OSU for the logistical support that enabled the completion of this research.  Potato seed were both purchased and provided by Rich Novy of ARS Aberdeen, Idaho, and Steve James of the Oregon Potato Development Project, Powell Butte, Oregon.

 

References

 

Akin, A.I., L.A. Unlenen, E.P. Eldredge, C.C. Shock, E.B.G. Feibert, and L.D. Saunders. 2003. Processing potato production with low flow drip tape or ultra-low flow tape. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 1048:167-172.

 

Eldredge, E.P., Z.A. Holmes, A.R. Mosley, C.C. Shock, and T.D. Stieber. 1996. Effects of transitory water stress on potato tuber stem-end reducing sugar and fry color. Am. Potato J. 73:517-530.

 

Mahmood, M.M, K. Farooq, A. Hussain, and R. Sher. 2002. Effect of mulching on growth and yield of potato crop. Asian J. Plant Sci. 1:132-133.

 

Manrique, L.A., and R.E. Meyer. 1984. Effect of soil mulches on soil temperature, plant growth and potato yields in an aridic isothermic environment in Peru. Turrialba 34:413-420.

 

Midmore, D.J., J. Roca, and D. Berrios. 1986. Potato (Solanum spp) in the hot tropics. III. Influence of mulch on weed growth, crop development, and yield in contrasting environments. Field Crops Res. 15:109-124.

 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2005. Available online at http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov

 

Sammis, T.W. 1980. Comparison of sprinkler, trickle, subsurface and furrow irrigation methods for row crops. Agron. J. 72:701-704.

 

Shock, C.C., J. Barnum, and M. Seddigh. 1998. Calibration of Watermark soil moisture sensors for irrigation management. Irrigation Association. Pages 139-146 in Proceedings of the International Irrigation Show. San Diego, CA.

 

Shock, C.C, E.P. Eldredge, and A.B. Pereira. 2005. Planting configuration and plant population effects on drip-irrigated Umatilla Russet yield and grade. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 1062:156-165.

Shock, C.C., E.P. Eldredge, and L.D. Saunders. 2002. Drip irrigation management factors for Umatilla Russet potato production. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 1038:157-169.

 

Shock, C.C., E.P. Eldredge, and L.D. Saunders. 2004. Planting configuration and plant population effects on drip-irrigated Umatilla Russet yield and grade. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 1055:182-186.

 

Shock, C.C., L.B. Jensen, T.D. Steiber, E.P. Eldredge, J. Vomocil, and Z.A. Holmes. 1989. Cultural practices that decrease potato dark-ends.  Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station Special Report 848:1-8.

 

Trout, T.J., D.C. Kincaid, and D.T. Westernmann. 1994. Comparison of ‘Russet Burbank’ yield and quality under furrow and sprinkler irrigation. Am. Potato J. 71:15-28.


Table 1. Tuber yield, grade, and processing quality of potato entries affected by irrigation systems and cultivars at Malheur Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.  Drip-irrigation system was operated using two different irrigation criteria and sprinkler-irrigation system was evaluated with conventional beds, flat beds, and flat beds with straw mulch.

 

 

Yield by grade category

 

Fry color

Irrigation system + criteria

Cultivar

Total

yield

Total market-able

U.S.

No.1

Total

No. 1

>12

oz

6-12

oz

4-6 oz

U.S.

No.2

<4oz

Cull

Rot

Length/

width

Specific

gravity

Stem end

Bud

end

Average

 

--- cwt/acre  ---

%

------------------------------ cwt/acre -------------------------------

ratio

g cm-3

--- % light reflectance  ---

Sprinkler + hilled bed + ETc at SWT 60 kPa

R. Burbank

668

512

17

117

25

63

29

396

96

8

52

2.10

1.074

36

42

39.0

Ranger R.

633

534

55

350

121

171

58

185

81

13

5

2.00

1.089

44

45

44.5

Umatilla R.

620

535

50

309

109

153

47

226

79

6

0

1.90

1.092

49

48

48.5

GemStar

300

272

69

207

130

56

21

65

28

0

0

1.67

1.087

55

54

54.5

A92294-6

688

610

53

367

119

195

53

243

68

3

7

1.96

1.101

56

55

55.6

A93157-6LS

680

623

73

499

228

218

53

124

54

2

1

1.84

1.091

48

44

46.0

Mean

598

515

53

308

122

143

43

206

68

5

10

1.91

1.089

48

48

48.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drip + flat bed + ETc at SWT 30 kPa

R. Burbank

696

596

52

364

107

191

67

232

84

14

1

1.96

1.080

39

41

40.0

Ranger R.

639

582

69

444

229

173

42

138

51

6

0

1.92

1.094

45

44

44.5

Umatilla R.

624

543

67

415

157

198

60

128

71

10

1

1.85

1.089

47

45

46.0

GemStar

297

270

82

245

148

72

25

25

26

0

1

1.69

1.084

50

51

50.5

A92294-6

752

684

71

535

109

335

92

149

68

0

0

1.94

1.103

55

53

54.0

A93157-6LS

688

641

81

553

219

275

58

89

40

7

0

1.86

1.096

46

43

44.5

Mean

616

553

70

426

161

207

57

127

57

6

1

1.87

1.091

47

46

46.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Furrow + hilled bed + SWT at 60 kPa

R. Burbank

619

502

20

124

18

67

40

378

79

7

30

2.10

1.081

35

42

38.5

Ranger R.

541

478

50

270

103

121

46

208

52

8

3

2.05

1.096

44

45

44.5

Umatilla R.

514

447

47

241

66

128

47

207

64

1

1

1.98

1.093

46

46

46.0

GemStar

248

216

62

158

76

60

22

58

25

0

7

1.83

1.091

54

53

53.5

A92294-6

680

605

49

334

69

206

60

271

54

1

20

2.14

1.101

50

51

50.5

A93157-6LS

593

550

73

434

191

199

44

117

34

4

4

1.93

1.098

45

43

44.0

Mean

532

467

50

260

87

130

43

207

51

4

11

2.00

1.093

46

47

46.5

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Continued. Tuber yield, grade, and processing quality of potato entries affected by irrigation systems and cultivars at Malheur Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.  Drip-irrigation system was operated using two different irrigation criteria and sprinkler-irrigation system was evaluated with conventional beds, flat beds, and flat beds with straw mulch.

 

 

Yield by grade category

 

Fry color

Irrigation system + criteria

Cultivar

Total

yield

Total

market-able

U.S.

No.1

Total

No. 1

>12

oz

6-12

oz

4-6 oz

U.S.

No.2

<4oz

Cull

Rot

Length/

width

Specific

gravity

Stem end

Bud

end

Average

 

--- cwt/acre  ---

%

------------------------------ cwt/acre -------------------------------

ratio

g cm-3

--- % light reflectance  ---

Drip + flat bed + ETc at SWT 30 kPa

R. Burbank

696

596

52

364

107

191

67

232

84

14

1

1.96

1.080

39

41

40.0

Ranger R.

639

582

69

444

229

173

42

138

51

6

0

1.92

1.094

45

44

44.5

Umatilla R.

624

543

67

415

157

198

60

128

71

10

1

1.85

1.089

47

45

46.0

GemStar

297

270

82

245

148

72

25

25

26

0

1

1.69

1.084

50

51

50.5

A92294-6

752

684

71

535

109

335

92

149

68

0

0

1.94

1.103

55

53

54.0

A93157-6LS

688

641

81

553

219

275

58

89

40

7

0

1.86

1.096

46

43

44.5

Mean

616

553

70

426

161

207

57

127

57

6

1

1.87

1.091

47

46

46.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drip + flat bed + 70% ETc at SWT 30 kPa

R. Burbank

638

552

59

370

74

219

77

182

83

3

0

1.93

1.075

36

41

38.5

Ranger R.

603

554

73

444

251

144

50

110

48

1

0

1.87

1.093

45

43

44.0

Umatilla R.

530

469

71

379

132

184

64

91

60

0

0

1.93

1.088

47

45

46.0

GemStar

398

370

81

327

215

84

28

43

29

0

0

1.71

1.088

52

51

51.5

A92294-6

749

679

69

516

153

287

76

163

70

0

1

1.85

1.099

54

53

53.5

A93157-6LS

699

654

81

562

248

258

56

93

43

0

2

1.81

1.095

46

42

44.0

Mean

603

547

72

433

179

196

58

114

55

1

0

1.85

1.090

46

46

46.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sprinkler + hilled bed + ETc at SWT 60 kPa

R. Burbank

668

512

17

117

25

63

29

396

96

8

52

2.10

1.074

36

42

39.0

Ranger R.

633

534

55

350

121

171

58

185

81

13

5

2.00

1.089

44

45

44.5

Umatilla R.

620

535

50

309

109

153

47

226

79

6

0

1.90

1.092

49

48

48.5

GemStar

300

272

69

207

130

56

21

65

28

0

0

1.67

1.087

55

54

54.5

A92294-6

688

610

53

367

119

195

53

243

68

3

7

1.96

1.101

56

55

55.5

A93157-6LS

680

623

73

499

228

218

53

124

54

2

1

1.84

1.091

48

44

46.0

Mean

598

515

53

308

122

143

43

206

68

5

10

1.91

1.089

48

48

48.0

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Continued. Tuber yield, grade, and processing quality of potato entries affected by irrigation systems and cultivars at Malheur Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.  Drip-irrigation system was operated using two different irrigation criteria and sprinkler-irrigation system was evaluated with conventional beds, flat beds, and flat beds with straw mulch.

 

 

Yield by grade category

 

Fry color

Irrigation system + criteria

Cultivar

Total

yield

Total

market-able

U.S.

No.1

Total

No. 1

>12

oz

6-12

oz

4-6 oz

U.S.

No.2

<4oz

Cull

Rot

Length/

width

Specific

gravity

Stem end

Bud

end

Average

 

--- cwt/acre  ---

%

------------------------------ cwt/acre -------------------------------

ratio

g cm-3

--- % light reflectance  ---

Sprinkler + flat bed + ETc at SWT 60 kPa

R. Burbank

673

572

28

193

51

102

40

380

91

5

4

2.08

1.080

37

42

39.5

Ranger R.

631

561

56

359

146

170

43

202

60

10

0

1.92

1.091

45

44

44.5

Umatilla R.

620

526

54

333

127

162

44

193

84

10

0

1.92

1.093

47

46

46.5

GemStar

287

264

73

209

122

64

24

55

23

0

0

1.77

1.085

53

53

53.0

A92294-6

739

664

55

408

122

223

63

256

70

0

5

1.89

1.104

55

55

55.0

A93157-6LS

691

628

71

489

205

217

67

140

55

8

0

1.79

1.091

48

44

46.0

Mean

607

536

56

332

129

157

47

204

64

5

2

1.90

1.091

47

47

47.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sprinkler + flat bed + straw + ETc at SWT 60 kPa

R. Burbank

679

572

28

188

57

93

38

385

92

10

5

2.23

1.076

36

43

39.5

Ranger R.

693

625

57

385

172

160

53

240

56

11

1

1.91

1.093

47

46

46.5

Umatilla R.

634

559

60

383

149

182

52

176

69

7

0

1.96

1.092

48

47

47.5

GemStar

257

229

80

202

132

51

19

27

25

3

0

1.69

1.086

54

54

54.0

A92294-6

754

680

55

422

157

204

60

259

68

4

2

1.99

1.105

56

56

56.0

A93157-6LS

672

627

74

498

259

196

43

130

42

3

0

1.87

1.092

47

44

45.5

Mean

615

549

59

346

154

147

44

203

59

6

1

1.94

1.091

48

48

48.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overall mean

595

528

60

351

139

163

49

177

59

5

4

1.91

1.091

47

47

47

LSD (0.05) Irrigation

44.3

49.2

3.8

41.9

32.4

16.4

6.6

28.6

10

NS

7.8

0.1

NS

1.7

1.3

-

LSD (0.05) Cultivar

36.4

36

2.4

27.7

22.5

14.6

6.4

19.2

6.7

3.7

5.1

0.1

NS

1.2

1.0

-

LSD (0.05) I x C

NS

NS

5.9

NS

NS

35.7

16

47

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

-