Soybean Performance in Ontario in 2005

SOYBEAN PERFORMANCE IN ONTARIO IN 2005

Erik B.G. Feibert, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

Introduction

Soybean is a potentially valuable new crop for Oregon. Soybean could provide high quality protein for animal nutrition and oil for human consumption, both of which are in short supply in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, edible or vegetable soybean production could provide a raw material for specialized food products. Soybean is valuable as a rotation crop because of the soil-improving qualities of its residues and its nitrogen (N2) -fixing capability. Because of the high-value irrigated crops typically grown in the Snake River Valley, soybeans may be economically feasible only at high yields.

Soybean varieties developed for the midwestern and southern states are not necessarily well adapted to Oregon's lower night temperatures, lower relative humidity, and other climatic differences. Previous research at Ontario, Oregon has shown that, compared to the commercial cultivars bred for the Midwest, plants for eastern Oregon need to have high tolerance to seed shatter and lodging, reduced plant height, increased seed set, and higher harvest index (ratio of seed to the whole plant).

M. Seddigh and G.D. Jolliff at Oregon State University, Corvallis identified a soybean line that would fill pods when subjected to cool night temperatures. This line was crossed at Corvallis with productive lines to produce 'OR 6' and 'OR 8', among others. At this point, the development moved to Ontario, Oregon. The later two lines were crossed at our request for several years with early-maturing high-yielding semi-dwarf lines by R.L. Cooper (USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Wooster, OH) to produce semi-dwarf lines with potential adaptation to the Pacific Northwest. Selection criteria at the Malheur Experiment Station (MES) included high yield, zero lodging, zero shatter, low plant height, and maturity in the available growing season. In 1992, 241 single plants were selected from 5 F5 lines that were originally bred and selected for adaptation to eastern Oregon. Seed from these selections was planted and evaluated in 1993; 18 selections were found promising and selected for further testing in larger plots from 1994 through 1999. Of the 18 lines, 8 were selected for further testing. In 1999, selections from one of the advanced MES lines were made by P. Sexton at the Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (COAREC) in Madras, Oregon. Sixteen of these selections made in Madras were chosen for further testing. In 2000, we made further selections from six of our 1992 MES lines and from OR-6.

In 2005, a new planting configuration was used; its objective was to provide a more uniform distribution of the plants over the soil surface. The more uniform plant distribution should result in improved access to light, nutrients, and water for individual plants. This report summarizes work done in 2005 as part of our continuing breeding and selection program to adapt soybeans to eastern Oregon.

Materials and Methods

The trial was conducted on a Greenleaf silt loam (pH of 7.5 and 2.6 percent organic matter) previously planted to wheat. Two hundred lb of sulfur and 1 lb of boron were broadcast in the fall of 2004. The field was disked twice, moldboard plowed, ground hogged twice, and bedded to 30-inch rows in the spring of 2005. On May 26, Micro-Tech® herbicide was applied at 3 lb ai/acre and the field was harrowed to incorporate it.

Five commercial cultivars, 3 older lines selected at MES in 1992, 9 lines selected in 1999 at the COAREC from an advanced MES line, and 20 lines selected in 2000 at MES were planted in plots 4 rows by 25 ft. The plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The seed was planted on May 27 at 200,000 seeds/acre in 3 rows on each 30-inch bed using a plot drill with disk openers. The rows were spaced 7 inches apart (Fig. 1). Rhizobium japonicum soil implant inoculant was applied in the seed furrow at planting. Emergence started on June 1.

The field was furrow irrigated on alternate furrows when the soil water tension at 8-inch depth reached 50-60 centibars (cb). Soil water tension was monitored by six granular matrix sensors (GMS, Watermark Soil Moisture Sensors Model 200SS, Irrometer Co., Riverside, CA) installed in the bed center at 8-inch depth. Sensors were automatically read three times a day with an AM-400 meter (Mike Hansen Co., East Wenatchee, WA).

The field was sprayed on June 8 with Poast® at 0.28 lb ai/acre and Basagran® at 0.62 lb ai/acre for weed control. For lygus bug and stinkbug control, the field was sprayed with Warrior® at 0.03 lb ai/acre and Lannate® at 0.45 lb ai/acre on July 20, and with dimethoate at 0.5 lb ai/acre on August 16. For spider mite control, the field was sprayed with Comite® at 1.6 lb ai/acre on August 20.

Plant height and reproductive stage were measured weekly for each cultivar. Prior to harvest, each plot was evaluated for lodging and seed shatter. Lodging was rated as the degree to which the plants were leaning over (0 = vertical, 10 = prostrate). The middle two beds in each four-bed plot were harvested on October 7 using a Wintersteiger Nurserymaster small plot combine. Beans were cleaned, weighed, and a sub-sample was oven dried to determine moisture content. Samples of selected cultivars were sent to Oregon State University for analysis of crude fat and crude protein. Crude fat was analyzed using ether extraction and crude protein was analyzed using a copper catalyst Kjeldahl method. Moisture at the time of analysis was determined by oven drying at 100°C for 24 hours. Dry bean yields, crude fat, and crude protein were corrected to 13 percent moisture. Variety lodging, plant population, yield, and seed count were compared by analysis of variance. Means separation was determined by the protected least significant difference test.

Results and Discussion

Yields in 2005 ranged from 56.2 bu/acre for 'Sibley' to 76.6 bu/acre for '107' (Table 1). Several of the lines had seed counts sufficient for the manufacturing of tofu (<2,270 seeds/lb). Several lines combined high yields, little lodging, and early maturity.

Crude fat ranged from 20.49 percent for 'M92-220' to 21.77 percent for 'M92-085' (Table 2). Crude protein ranged from 34.27 percent for '106' to 36.54 percent for M92-220.

On average, yields in 2005 were the highest in the last 4 years (Table 3), possibly as a result of the modified planting configuration. The planting configuration used previously had seeds planted in single rows on 22-inch beds. In 2005 there were 3 rows on a 30-inch bed.

Figure 1. Soybean planting configuration used in 2005, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR

 

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Table 1. Performance of soybean cultivars ranked by yield in 2005, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Cultivar

Origin

Days to maturity

Days to harvest maturity

Lodging

Height

seeds/lb

Yield

 

 

--- days from emergence ---

0-10

cm

seeds/lb

bu/acre

107

M92-085

97

107

5.0

87

2,269

76.6

101

M92-085

97

121

6.0

105

2,295

74.4

M9

M92-330

97

121

7.5

80

2,292

73.9

M15

M92-330

97

121

4.5

100

2,220

73.8

103

M92-085

97

107

5.8

96

2,318

73.7

Lambert

 

107

121

9.3

79

2,304

73.3

M1

M92-330

97

121

6.0

85

2,284

73.0

M4

M92-330

97

107

4.3

86

2,349

73.0

106

M92-085

97

121

5.8

77

2,299

72.0

M92-085

 

97

121

5.8

81

2,255

71.8

905

OR-6

97

107

9.0

77

2,430

71.1

104

M92-085

97

121

5.3

98

2,395

70.9

909

OR-6

97

121

9.3

82

2,391

70.8

108

M92-085

97

121

4.8

86

2,379

70.5

M12

M92-330

97

121

6.8

84

2,290

70.4

608

M92-314

97

121

6.8

87

2,294

70.2

M3

M92-330

97

107

3.8

100

2,352

69.6

Evans

 

107

121

9.3

76

2,286

69.3

M16

M92-330

97

121

4.3

93

2,268

69.1

514

M92-237

107

121

7.3

108

2,345

68.5

312

M92-220

107

121

5.8

102

2,403

68.4

311

M92-220

107

121

7.0

104

2,409

68.1

M92-225

 

97

121

5.8

101

2,338

68.0

M13

M92-330

97

121

4.0

99

2,253

67.9

Korada

 

107

121

5.3

105

2,306

67.8

303

M92-220

97

121

7.0

110

2,480

67.7

309

M92-220

107

121

6.0

96

2,447

67.5

601

M92-314

107

121

6.5

101

2,336

65.6

Gnome 85

 

107

121

9.5

75

2,300

65.4

OR-6

 

97

121

9.5

74

2,344

65.1

511

M92-237

107

121

7.0

101

2,563

65.0

308

M92-220

107

121

5.3

99

2,396

64.5

307

M92-220

107

121

6.5

100

2,404

64.3

305

M92-220

107

121

6.0

103

2,427

64.2

M92-220

 

107

121

8.3

101

2,393

63.4

313

M92-220

107

121

7.5

98

2,506

62.5

M2

M92-330

107

121

6.5

74

2,296

62.0

OR-8

 

114

121

9.8

80

2,041

57.8

Sibley

 

114

121

9.8

75

1,976

56.2

LSD (0.05)

 

 

2.0

 

131

8.0

Table 2. Quality analysis for selected cultivars. Data was corrected to 13 percent moisture, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2005.

Cultivar

Crude fat

Crude protein

 

---------- % ----------

M92-085

21.77

36.44

M92-220

20.49

36.54

M92-225

21.19

36.50

M1

21.54

36.03

M2

21.42

35.78

M3

21.49

36.05

M4

21.14

36.26

M9

21.45

35.82

M12

21.04

35.64

M13

21.11

35.59

M15

20.67

35.68

M16

21.57

36.29

101

21.28

35.90

106

20.93

34.27

107

21.12

34.93

LSD (0.05)

0.44

0.76

Table 3. Performance of soybean varieties over years, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

 

Yield

 

Average 2002-2005

Cultivar

2002

2003

2004

2005

 

Yield

Days to maturity

Lodging

Height

Seed count

 

------------------- bu/acre -------------------

 

bu/acre

 

0-10

cm

seeds/lb

107

66.9

59.5

61.5

76.6

 

66.1

89.8

3.5

86.3

2,187

M9

66.3

55.4

68.2

73.9

 

66.0

91.8

5.0

87.0

2,217

M12

65.7

56.1

70.5

70.4

 

65.7

94.8

4.3

85.5

2,125

M15

73.8

52.4

61.8

73.9

 

65.5

95.0

3.6

92.0

2,204

106

72.9

55.4

60.9

72.0

 

65.3

91.5

3.6

83.0

2,117

104

66.3

57.5

65.8

70.9

 

65.1

93.0

4.1

93.0

2,228

M92-085

64.1

61.6

62.5

71.9

 

65.0

96.8

3.7

88.0

2,155

108

68.1

54.3

66.9

70.5

 

64.9

91.5

3.2

85.5

2,180

103

69.6

55.3

60.6

73.7

 

64.8

91.5

3.7

91.0

2,140

M1

65.7

59.7

60.3

73.0

 

64.7

93.0

3.8

85.3

2,239

M3

63.7

52.1

68.7

69.6

 

63.5

95.0

3.6

93.3

2,254

M13

70.4

53.2

61.8

67.9

 

63.3

93.0

3.5

91.5

2,251

M16

65.7

55.6

62.2

69.1

 

63.2

93.0

2.8

92.5

2,183

M4

66.1

55.3

58.1

73.0

 

63.1

95.0

3.1

84.3

2,236

101

68.6

49.5

59.7

74.4

 

63.1

93.5

4.1

90.8

2,094

312

64.7

53.1

64.7

68.4

 

62.7

102.5

2.3

91.3

2,428

601

68.5

54.4

61.9

65.6

 

62.6

101.0

2.7

91.3

2,379

303

64.2

54.7

63.0

67.7

 

62.4

100.3

3.8

94.3

2,469

Korada

67.2

55.2

57.7

67.8

 

62.0

102.8

4.4

86.3

2,384

Lambert

62.9

58.6

52.7

73.3

 

61.9

104.3

8.1

86.0

2,343

305

68.8

57.4

54.8

64.2

 

61.3

102.8

2.7

84.3

2,450

M2

65.0

57.9

60.1

62.0

 

61.3

99.3

4.3

84.0

2,144

608

68.2

49.5

56.4

70.2

 

61.1

93.0

3.8

86.8

2,161

511

67.2

53.8

58.0

65.0

 

61.0

101.0

3.2

88.8

2,519

309

65.3

48.4

62.8

67.5

 

61.0

102.8

3.1

90.5

2,501

307

69.1

54.5

55.1

64.3

 

60.8

101.0

2.9

89.8

2,497

514

66.4

52.5

54.9

68.6

 

60.6

93.8

2.5

89.5

2,284

311

60.4

51.1

59.9

68.1

 

59.9

102.5

2.1

87.3

2,404

313

63.6

53.8

59.5

62.5

 

59.8

104.3

4.5

91.0

2,460

M92-220

69.4

49.5

57.0

63.4

 

59.8

102.8

4.4

97.3

2,515

308

65.7

49.4

59.4

64.6

 

59.8

104.3

1.8

87.5

2,503

M92-225

58.9

50.1

56.5

68.0

 

58.4

89.8

3.7

89.8

2,292

909

53.3

53.2

53.0

70.8

 

57.6

91.8

7.4

87.3

2,301

Gnome 85

60.0

48.7

52.9

65.4

 

56.8

102.8

8.0

85.5

2,220

905

48.6

50.3

55.1

71.1

 

56.3

91.8

7.5

85.5

2,378

OR-6

51.5

49.6

50.1

65.1

 

54.1

95.0

7.9

84.8

2,328

Evans

51.3

41.0

50.9

69.3

 

53.1

104.3

8.8

87.8

2,232

Sibley

51.0

40.5

49.0

56.2

 

49.2

109.5

9.0

87.3

2,111

OR-8

45.3

39.4

44.2

57.8

 

46.7

106.0

8.8

84.5

2,102

Average

63.9

52.8

59.0

68.4

 

61.0

97.6

4.4

88.4

2,288

LSD (0.05)

10.1

10.7

8.4

8.0