2006 WEATHER REPORT

Erik B. G. Feibert and Clinton C. Shock

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR


Introduction

Air temperature and precipitation have been recorded daily at the Malheur Experiment Station since July 20, 1942. Installation of additional equipment in 1948 allowed for evaporation and wind measurements. A soil thermometer at 4-inch depth was added in 1967. A biophenometer, to monitor degree days, and pyranometers, to monitor total solar and photosynthetically active radiation, were added in 1985.

Since 1962, the Malheur Experiment Station has participated in the Cooperative Weather Station system of the National Weather Service. The daily readings from the station are reported to the National Weather Service forecast office in Boise, Idaho.

Starting in June 1997, the daily weather data and the monthly weather summaries have been posted on the Malheur Experiment Station web site on the internet at www.cropinfo.net.

On June 1, 1992, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, a fully automated weather station, linked by satellite to the Northwest Cooperative Agricultural Weather Network (AgriMet) computer in Boise, Idaho, began transmitting data from Malheur Experiment Station. The automated station continually monitors air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, precipitation, wind run, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, and soil temperature at 8-inch and 20-inch depths. Data are transmitted via satellite to the Boise computer every 4 hours and are used to calculate daily Malheur County crop water-use estimates. The AgriMet database can be accessed through the internet at www.usbr.gov/pn/agrimet and from links on the Malheur Experiment Station web page at www.cropinfo.net.

Methods

The ground under and around the weather stations was bare until October 17, 1997, when it was covered with turfgrass. The grass is irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation. The weather data are recorded each day at 8:00 a.m. Consequently, the data in the tables of daily observations refer to the previous 24 hours.

Evaporation is measured from April through October as inches of water evaporated from a standard class A pan (10-inch-deep by 4-ft-diameter) over 24 hours. Evapotranspiration (ETc) for each crop is calculated by the AgriMet computer using data from the AgriMet weather station and the Kimberly-Penman equation (Wright 1982). Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is calculated for a theoretical 12- to 20-inch-tall crop of alfalfa assuming full cover for the whole season. Evapotranspiration for all crops is calculated using ET0 and crop coefficients for each crop. These crop coefficients vary throughout the growing season based on the plant growth stage. The crop coefficients are tied to the plant growth stage by three dates: start, full cover, and termination dates. Start dates are the beginning of vegetative growth in the spring for perennial crops or the emergence date for row crops. Full cover dates are typically when plants reach full foliage. Termination dates are defined by harvest, frost, or dormancy. Alfalfa mean ETc is calculated for an alfalfa crop assuming a 15 percent reduction to account for cuttings.

Wind run is measured as total wind movement in miles over 24 hours at 24 inches above the ground. Weather data averages in the tables, except evapotranspiration, refer to the years preceding and up to, but not including, the current year.

2006 Weather

The total precipitation for 2006 (12.79 inches) was higher than the 10-year (10.38 inches) and 63-year (10.07 inches) averages (Table 1). Precipitation in March (3.33 inches) was over three times higher than the 10-year and 63-year averages, whereas April (2.0 inches) was two and a half times higher. Total snowfall for 2006 (12 inches) was lower than the 10-year (14.0 inches) and 63-year (18.2 inches) averages (Table 2).

The highest temperature for 2005 was 106°F on July 23 (Table 3). The lowest temperature for the year was 10°F on February 18,19, and 20.

March and April had fewer growing degree days (50° to 86°F) than the 20-year average (Table 4, Fig. 1). May, June, and August had more growing degree days (50° to 86°F) than the 20-year average. The total number of degree days in the above-optimal range (86o to 104oF) in 2006 was higher than the average (Table 5). July had twice as many above-optimal degree days as the 16-year average.

June and July had total wind runs higher than the 10-year and 58-year averages (Table 6). Total pan-evaporation for June and July was higher than the 10-year and 58-year averages (Table 7). Total accumulated ETc for most crops in 2006 was higher than the 14-year average (Table 8).

The average monthly maximum and minimum 4-inch soil temperatures in 2006 were close to the 10-year and 39-year averages (Table 9).

The last spring frost (32°F) occurred on April 19, 9 days earlier than the 29-year average date of April 28; the first fall frost occurred on October 22, 17 days later than the 29-year average date of October 5 (Table 10). No weather records were broken in 2006 (Table 11).

References

Wright, J.L. 1982. New evapotranspiration crop coefficients. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, ASCE 108:57-74.

Table 1. Monthly precipitation at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1991-2006.

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total


-------------------------------------------------------- inches --------------------------------------------------------

1991

0.59

0.44

0.88

0.81

1.89

1.09

0.01

0.04

0.35

1.01

1.71

0.43

9.25

1992

0.58

1.36

0.25

0.74

0.21

1.43

0.36

0.01

0.09

0.95

1.15

1.51

8.64

1993

2.35

1.02

2.41

2.55

0.70

1.55

0.18

0.50

0.00

0.80

0.64

0.60

13.30

1994

1.20

0.57

0.05

1.02

1.62

0.07

0.19

0.00

0.15

1.23

2.46

1.49

10.05

1995

2.67

0.28

1.58

1.16

1.41

1.60

1.10

0.13

0.07

0.57

0.88

2.56

14.01

1996

0.97

0.86

1.03

1.19

2.39

0.12

0.32

0.31

0.59

0.97

1.18

2.76

12.69

1997

2.13

0.17

0.25

0.66

0.67

0.86

1.40

0.28

0.40

0.43

1.02

0.94

9.21

1998

2.26

1.45

0.95

1.43

4.55

0.36

1.06

0.00

1.00

0.04

1.07

1.11

15.28

1999

1.64

2.50

0.59

0.23

0.28

1.02

0.00

0.09

0.00

0.40

0.49

0.73

7.97

2000

2.01

2.14

0.97

0.72

0.28

0.26

0.03

0.06

0.39

1.74

0.38

0.66

9.64

2001

1.15

0.41

1.11

0.70

0.37

0.64

0.32

0.00

0.10

0.68

1.33

1.00

7.78

2002

0.77

0.27

0.49

0.77

0.09

0.60

0.14

0.10

0.36

0.29

0.44

1.86

6.18

2003

1.46

0.48

0.99

1.12

1.52

0.24

0.36

0.11

0.15

0.02

0.86

1.47

8.78

2004

1.82

1.54

0.25

0.98

1.70

0.43

0.13

0.64

0.56

2.03

0.93

0.97

11.98

2005

0.41

0.12

1.66

0.80

2.94

1.02

0.22

0.06

0.14

1.38

1.58

3.92

14.25

2006

1.91

0.67

3.33

2.00

0.62

0.45

0.00

0.08

0.55

0.28

1.14

1.76

12.79

10-yr avg

1.46

0.99

0.83

0.86

1.48

0.56

0.40

0.17

0.37

0.80

0.95

1.54

10.38

63-yr avg

1.29

0.96

0.93

0.78

1.08

0.80

0.23

0.34

0.44

0.74

1.16

1.32

10.07


Table 2. Annual snowfall totals at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1991-2006.

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

10-yr avg

63-yr avg

----------------------------------------------------------------- inches -----------------------------------------------------------------

7.5

15.5

36.0

32.0

15.0

14.5

5.8

14.6

13.2

13.8

15.5

11.5

4.5

24.0

13.5

12.3

14.0

18.2


Table 3. Monthly air temperature, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.


Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec


Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min


-------------------------------------------------------- oF --------------------------------------------------------------

Highest

50

36

59

40

66

44

81

50

94

59

99

69

106

73

101

68

95

61

81

52

75

53

55

41

Lowest

27

20

30

10

35

20

49

28

58

36

75

46

85

55

73

43

62

36

47

16

29

13

29

13

2006 avg

41

29

44

24

52

33

64

40

76

47

85

56

97

64

90

55

80

47

66

37

51

33

38

22

10-yr avg

38

25

45

27

57

32

64

38

72

45

81

51

93

59

91

56

80

47

67

38

48

29

38

25

63-yr avg

35

20

43

25

55

31

64

37

74

45

82

52

92

58

90

56

80

46

66

36

48

28

37

22

Accumulated degree-days over time for 2006 compared with other recent years.

Figure 1. Cumulative growing degree days (50-86°F) over time for selected years compared to 16-year average, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.


Table 4. Monthly total growing degree days (50-86°F), Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1991-2006.

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1991

0

13

16

124

212

389

776

718

436

194

1

0

2,879

1992

0

13

106

202

482

574

639

704

385

174

4

0

3,283

1993

0

0

23

81

423

358

464

524

408

252

6

0

2,539

1994

0

2

92

189

369

523

794

774

509

144

2

0

3,398

1995

0

29

32

106

293

433

680

588

472

101

3

10

2,747

1996

0

5

53

135

243

446

805

658

364

194

18

2

2,923

1997

4

0

81

117

419

509

661

706

481

157

20

0

3,154

1998

0

2

52

112

68

571

802

749

515

151

16

4

3,042

1999

0

2

43

72

329

459

683

703

416

184

30

0

2,921

2000

0

4

36

194

342

536

751

743

368

133

2

0

3,109

2001

0

0

63

126

401

488

715

761

472

155

27

0

3,208

2002

0

2

32

137

319

562

805

621

437

142

14

2

3,073

2003

0

4

72

112

319

594

846

754

448

281

11

2

3,443

2004

0

0

115

187

311

607

776

680

365

180

4

0

3,225

2005

0

7

59

126

286

419

749

733

383

133

4

0

2,899

2006

0

4

22

131

364

599

866

668

394

151

31

0

3,230

20-year avg

0

5

57

152

323

519

730

686

432

173

12

1

3,092


Table 5. Monthly total degree days in the above-ideal (86-104°F) range, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1991-2006.

Year

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Total

1991

0

0

2

41

36

4

0

83

1992

0

5

20

23

54

2

0

104

1993

0

4

4

2

11

5

0

26

1994

0

2

16

68

54

7

0

147

1995

0

0

4

23

22

7

0

56

1996

0

0

5

54

32

4

0

95

1997

0

4

0

27

31

5

0

67

1998

0

0

0

63

45

14

0

122

1999

0

1

2

21

16

1

0

41

2000

0

0

7

41

43

4

0

95

2001

0

5

7

25

45

4

0

86

2002

0

0

14

54

11

5

0

85

2003

0

5

9

74

36

5

0

130

2004

0

0

18

43

31

2

0

94

2005

0

0

4

43

36

4

0

86

2006

0

5

13

81

23

5

0

128

16-yr avg

0

2

8

41

34

5

0

90


Table 6. Wind-run daily totals and monthly totals, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.

Daily

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec


------------------------------------------- miles -----------------------------------------------

Mean

47

44

90

85

68

72

62

48

37

52

55

31

Max

128

165

265

236

140

119

105

123

156

198

151

143

Min

4

3

14

37

30

38

35

15

10

4

8

3

Annual total

-------------------------------------------- miles ------------------------------------------------

2006

1,408

1,219

2,778

2,555

2,113

2,154

1,928

1,485

1,110

1,608

1,643

970

10-yr average

1,533

1,857

2,416

2,466

2,132

1,834

1,603

1,585

1,499

1,599

1,494

1,756

58-yr average




2,153

1,915

1,563

1,466

1,326

1,255

1,275




Table 7. Pan-evaporation totals, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.

Totals

April

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Total

Daily

-------------------------------------- inches ---------------------------------------

Mean

0.20

0.29

0.35

0.44

0.34

0.23

0.15


Max

0.42

0.44

0.52

0.57

0.47

0.45

0.34


Min

0.05

0.06

0.18

0.33

0.23

0.12

0.02


Annual

---------------------------------------- inches ------------------------------------

2006

6.05

8.90

10.45

13.70

10.67

6.92

4.69

61.4

10-yr avg

6.10

8.24

9.90

11.68

10.58

7.12

4.37

58.3

58-yr avg

5.64

7.70

8.98

11.19

9.66

6.34

3.29

51.8


Table 8. Total accumulated reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc) (acre-inches/acre), Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1992-2006.











Poplar

Year

ETo

Alfalfa (mean)

Winter grain

Spring grain

Sugar beets

Onions

Potatoes

Dry beans

Field corn

1st year

2nd year

3rd

year +

1992

53.7

44.4

26.9

27.9

36.1

30.3

28.8

21.3

29.8




1993

51.9

36.4

21.3

22.7

29.3

24.1

22.8

17.9

23.7




1994

57.6

40.6

21.3

22.6

34.5

29.5

28.2

21.1

27.7




1995

49.6

37.1

18.9

22.2

29.0

26.7

23.6

16.7

23.7




1996

52.8

39.8

22.3

24.1

32.9

27.2

26.3

19.5

25.7




1997

55.2

41.5

23.8

25.3

33.4

28.0

26.6

19.7

25.1




1998

55.0

40.7

21.3

23.9

32.4

28.2

26.2

21.0

27.9

23.9

37.1

44

1999

58.6

43.9

25.0

26.4

33.7

28.9

26.5

21.7

28.5

24.3

37.8

45.5

2000

58.7

45.5

26.0

25.7

38.3

32.0

29.5

24.1

30.6

24.9

38.9

47.1

2001

57.9

43.8

25.5

27.2

34.8

30.3

27.4

21.4

29.1

23.7

37.0

44.7

2002

58.8

41.7

25.9

28.7

35.2

30.4

27.7

21.9

27.8

23.6

36.7

44.4

2003

54.2

44.1

27.5

31.7

39.1

31.6

31.9

22.4

29.3

24.3

37.9

45.9

2004

52.8

43.5

27.8

30.6

34.3

30.2

27.9

22.1

28.4

23.3

36.3

44.1

2005

53.8

44.5

26.5

27.0

36.0

32.8

30.2

20.0

29.2

24.3

37.8

45.3

2006

57.7

47.8

24.3

30.2

38.4

32.4

30.9

22.4

29.6

26.2

40.8

49.3

Average

55.2

42.4

24.3

26.4

34.5

29.5

27.6

20.9

27.7

24.3

37.8

45.6

mm

1,402.6

1,075.8

616.9

670.9

876.1

749.5

701.9

530.4

704.6

616.7

960.4

1,158.0


Table 9. Monthly soil temperature at 4-inch depth, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.


Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec


Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min


--------------------------------------------------------- oF -----------------------------------------------------------

Highest

37

36

39

37

47

44

60

55

69

65

77

72

81

74

78

69

72

66

62

58

52

51

40

37

Lowest

30

28

31

30

37

35

45

42

55

49

65

56

74

67

68

63

58

52

45

41

34

33

30

28

2006 avg

34

33

35

33

41

39

51

47

62

56

70

63

77

71

73

66

65

60

54

50

44

42

33

32

10-yr avg

34

33

37

35

46

41

54

47

63

56

72

63

77

69

76

69

68

62

56

52

44

42

36

35

39-yr avg

33

32

38

34

50

41

60

47

72

58

81

66

88

74

86

73

76

63

60

51

44

39

34

33


Table 10. Last and first frost ([32°F) dates and number of frost-free days, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 1990-2006.

Year

Date of last frost

Date of first frost

Total frost-free days


Spring

Fall


1990

May 8

Oct 7

152

1991

Apr 30

Oct 4

157

1992

Apr 24

Sep 14

143

1993

Apr 20

Oct 11

174

1994

Apr 15

Oct 6

174

1995

Apr 16

Sep 22

159

1996

May 6

Sep 23

140

1997

May 3

Oct 8

158

1998

Apr 18

Oct 17

182

1999

May 11

Sep 28

140

2000

May 12

Sep 24

135

2001

Apr 29

Oct 10

164

2002

May 8

Oct 12

157

2003

May 19

Oct 11

145

2004

April 16

Oct 24

191

2005

April 15

Oct 6

174

2006

April 19

October 22

186

1976-2004 Avg

April 28

October 5

160


Table 11. Record weather events at the Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Record event

Measurement

Date

------------------------------------------ Since 1943 ------------------------------------------------

Greatest annual precipitation

16.87 inches

1983

Greatest monthly precipitation

4.55 inches

May 1998

Greatest 24-hour precipitation

1.52 inches

Sep 14, 1959

Greatest annual snowfall

40 inches

1955

Greatest 24-hour snowfall

10 inches

Nov 30, 1975

Earliest snowfall

1 inch

Oct 25, 1970

Highest air temperature

110°F

July 22, 2003

Total days with maximum air temp. m100°F

17 days

1971

Lowest air temperature

-26°F

Jan 21 and 22, 1962

Total days with minimum air temp. [0°F

35 days

1985

------------------------------------------ Since 1967 ------------------------------------------------

Lowest soil temperature at 4-inch depth

12°F

Dec 24, 25, and 26, 1990

------------------------------------------ Since 1986 -----------------------------------------------

Highest yearly growing degree days

3,446 degree days

1988

Lowest yearly growing degree days

2,539 degree days

1993

------------------------------------------ Since 1992 ------------------------------------------------

Highest reference evapotranspiration

58.8 inches

2002