2006 Winter Elite Wheat trial

Eric P. Eldredge, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Oregon State University

Malheur Experiment Station

Ontario, OR

Introduction

Malheur Experiment Station provides one location for the Oregon State University Statewide Winter Elite Wheat variety testing program. This location compares soft white winter wheat variety performance in a furrow-irrigated, high yield potential environment. Plant breeders can use information on variety performance to compare advanced lines with released cultivars. Growers can use this information to make decisions about which soft white winter wheat varieties may perform best in their fields.

Methods

The trial was grown on Owyhee silt loam where the previous crop was sweet corn. After harvest, the corn stalks were flailed, the field was disked, and the soil was sampled and analyzed. The analysis showed 69 lb available nitrogen (N) per acre in the top 2 ft of soil. The top foot of soil contained 25 ppm phosphorus (P), 313 ppm potassium (K), and 16 ppm sulfate (SO4)/acre, 2,442 ppm calcium (Ca), 501 ppm magnesium (Mg), 107 ppm sodium (Na), 1.7 ppm zinc (Zn), 7 ppm iron (Fe), 5 ppm manganese (Mn), 0.6 ppm copper (Cu), 0.4 ppm boron (B), pH 7.4, and 0.98 percent organic matter. Pre-plant fertilizer was broadcast in on September 8, 2005 to apply 50 lb N/acre, 50 lb P2O5 /acre, 50 lb SO4/acre, 50 lb elemental S/acre, 1 lb Cu/acre, and 1 lb B/acre. The soil was deep ripped, plowed, and ground-hogged to prepare the seedbed. The field was corrugated into 30-inch rows.

The Winter Elite Wheat Trial was comprised of 40 soft white winter (SWW) wheat cultivars or lines, 3 of which were club types, and 5 with resistance to imazamox herbicide for use in the BASF "Clearfield®" system (designated SWW-CF). Seed was treated with Dividend XL RTA® fungicide seed treatment. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Grain was planted on October 24, 2005, with a small plot grain drill, in plots 5 by 20 ft, and the field was recorrugated. Seed was planted at a seeding rate of 30 live seed/ft2, corresponding to approximately 110 lb/acre. Rainfall in October after planting totaled 0.30 inch and in early November an additional 1.16 inch of rain fell by the time of emergence on November 11. Urea fertilizer was applied by aerial applicator to supply 100 lb N/acre on March 31, 2006.

Broadleaf weeds were controlled with Bronate® herbicide at 1qt/acre applied on May 20. Alleys were cut with a sickle bar mower on June 13. Plant height at maturity was measured in the trial on July 10. The alleys were recut with a Hege plot combine on July 17 and the resulting length of each plot was measured and recorded. The plots were harvested on July 18 with a Hege plot combine. Yield and test weight differences were compared using ANOVA and least significant differences at the 5 percent probability level, LSD (0.05). Differences in yield or test weight between varieties should be equal to or greater than the corresponding LSD (0.05) value before any variety is considered different from another in this trial.

Results

The date of 50 percent heading in the Winter Elite Wheat Trial varieties, when half of the culms had extended the peduncle above the collar of the flag leaf, ranged from May 22 (Day of Year [DOY] 142) for 'BZ 6W99-456' to June 4 (DOY 155) for 'OR12042037' (Table 1). Height at maturity ranged from 35 inches tall for 'Gene' to 43 inches tall for 'Tubbs-06', 'Rod', and 'ID99-435'. No lodging was observed in any plots. Test weights in this trial ranged from 64 lb/bu for BZ 6W99-456 to 59 lb/bu for 'Chukar'. Protein content of the grain ranged from 11 percent for Gene to 9 percent for 'ID99-419'.

Yield ranged from 111 bu/acre for 'OR2030411' to 80 bu/acre for 'ARS97135-9' (Table 1). Among the highest yielding wheat varieties were OR2030411, Tubbs-06, 'OR2020787', 'OR2030238', 'OR2010239', 'ID99-419', 'Stephens', 'OR2030239, ORI2042037, 'ORH010918', 'ORH010920', 'ORH010083', 'Weatherford', 'ORH010085', Rod, 'ORH010837', 'Idaho 587', 'ORCF-102', 'Madsen', 'OR2010241', and 'OR9901619'. Stephens, a check variety in this trial, and the most commonly grown variety in this production area, continues to show high yield performance, placing it among the top yielding varieties in the trial.

Information on previous wheat trials at Malheur Experiment Station is available on the web at http://cropinfo.net. Information on the performance of the varieties in this trial at other Oregon locations is available on the web at http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/wheat/state_performance_data.htm.

Table 1. Winter Elite Wheat Trial market class, yield, test weight, protein, plant height, and 50 percent heading date. Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR, 2006.

Market

Test

Mature

50%

Identification

classa

Yield

weight

Protein

height

heading

bub/acre

lb/bu

%

inch

day of 2006

OR2030411

SWW

111.2

60.9

10.1

38

149

Tubbs-06

SWW

110.0

61.1

9.7

43

145

OR2020787

SWW

109.9

60.9

10.7

39

147

OR2030238

SWW

109.5

60.2

10.1

38

147

OR2010239

SWW

108.5

60.0

9.8

40

152

ID99-419

SWW

106.8

61.5

9.2

40

153

Stephens

SWW

106.6

61.2

10.5

38

145

OR2030239

SWW

106.1

60.3

10.1

38

147

ORI2042037

SWW-CF

105.8

60.8

9.9

41

155

ORH010918

SWW

105.1

61.0

10.3

36

143

ORH010920

SWW

103.3

61.4

10.6

35

144

ORH010083

SWW

102.9

62.1

10.9

38

151

Weatherford

SWW

102.8

61.3

10.0

41

147

ORH010085

SWW

102.1

62.2

10.6

37

150

Rod

SWW

101.2

61.2

9.5

43

150

ORH010837

SWW

99.2

60.6

10.1

36

147

Idaho 587

SWW-CF

99.1

60.8

9.8

39

150

ORCF-102

SWW-CF

99.0

61.0

9.9

41

151

Madsen

SWW

99.0

61.8

10.4

38

150

OR2010241

SWW

97.8

61.7

10.4

40

151

OR9901619

SWW

97.7

60.1

9.7

42

152

Westbred 528

SWW

96.5

62.7

10.4

38

148

OR2030554

SWW

96.4

60.7

9.4

37

151

ORI202183C

SWW-CF

96.1

61.2

10.0

39

150

Masami

SWW

95.1

61.8

9.5

40

148

OR9900553

SWW

95.0

61.1

10.5

37

150

ID99-435

SWW

94.5

61.2

10.1

43

147

ARSC96059-1

SWW

94.3

62.6

9.8

40

150

ID92-22407A

SWW

93.2

61.0

10.1

41

149

Tubbs

SWW

93.2

61.1

9.6

42

150

Brundage 96

SWW

92.3

60.6

9.4

37

147

Chukar

Club

92.1

59.4

9.7

41

154

ORCF-101

SWW-CF

91.3

61.2

10.1

38

150

Gene

SWW

88.8

59.6

11.0

35

144

ORSS-1757

SWW

88.2

60.3

9.5

38

144

Simon

SWW

88.2

61.0

10.1

40

147

BZ 6W99-456

SWW

86.5

63.8

10.6

35

142

Coda

Club

81.8

61.5

9.4

40

154

ARS99123

Club

81.5

61.3

10.7

38

145

ARS97135-9

SWW

80.0

59.6

10.3

38

153

Mean

97.7

61.1

10.1

39

149

LSDc (0.05)

14.6

0.05

0.6

2

n/ad

aSWW = Soft white winter, SSWW = Super-soft white winter, SWW-CF = Soft white winter with resistance to imazamox herbicide.
b
60-lb bushel.
c
Least Significant Difference at alpha P ≤ 0.05.
dn/a = not applicable.