Sugar Beet Variety TRialS 2008


Lamont D. Saunders and Clinton C. Shock

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR



Introduction

The sugar beet industry in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon, in cooperation with Oregon State University, tests sugar beet varieties at multiple locations each year to identify varieties with high sugar yield and root quality. A seed advisory committee evaluates the data each year to select the best varieties for sugar production. This report provides the agronomic practices and results for the Malheur Experiment Station location of the 2008 trials.

Methods

The 2008 sugar beet trials are grown on Owyhee silt loam soil where winter wheat was the previous crop. The wheat stubble was shredded and the field was irrigated and disked. Soil analysis showed pH of 7.8, very low total nitrates at 8 ppm, low sulfates at 12 ppm, very low manganese at 3 ppm, and very low iron at 6 ppm. All other elements were adequate. Based on soil analyses and estimated crop needs, the field was fertilized with 50 lb/acre N, 30 lb/acre P2O, 46 lb/acre S as sulfate, 100 lb/acre elemental S, 5 lb/acre Zn, 6 lb/acre Mn, and 2 lb/acre B on September 28, 2007. The field was ripped, plowed, and ground hogged before the field was bedded in 22-inch beds and Telone® C17 was injected at 15 gal/acre on November 27, 2007.

Sugar beets were planted on April 3, 2008 at a seeding rate of 8 viable seed/ft of row. Plots of each variety were 4 rows wide (22-inch row spacing) by 23 ft long, with a 3-ft alley separating each tier of plots. Each entry was replicated eight times in a randomized complete block design.

On April 11, Counter® 15G was applied in a band over each row at 7.4 lb/acre. The first irrigation was on April 12. Soil moisture was monitored using Watermark soil moisture sensors. Soil moisture is maintained at a soil water tension wetter than 70 centibars at 8-inch depth in the beet row for the duration of the season.

Beets began to emerge on April 17, and were fully emerged by April 26. The entire trial was broadcast sprayed with Roundup WeatherMax® at 22 oz/acre on May 4 when beets were in the two true-leaf stage. Seedlings were thinned by hand to one plant per 7 inches on May 19. On June 02, urea was side dressed to supply 170 lb N/acre.

The field was side dressed with Temik® at 10 lb/acre on June 2 and irrigated on June 3 to control sugar beet root maggot. On June 9, the trial was broadcast sprayed with Roundup WeatherMax at 22 oz/acre. Roundup PowerMax at 22 oz/acre was sprayed on July 2. This application was made using 110-degree flat-fan spray nozzles mounted on the back of corrugator slicks with the spray directed upwards. This directional spray facilitated getting the herbicide under the canopy and was effective in spraying the weeds that had escaped because they had been protected overhead by the sugar beet canopy.

Petiole tests were taken on July 3, July 16 and August 18. Based on petiole analyses, boron was water run at 0.2 lb/acre on July 18. To control powdery mildew, Headline®fungicide at 12 oz/acre was applied on July 15 and August 7, Enable® fungicide was applied at 8 oz/acre with 4 lb S/acre on July 29 and September 3, and Topsin M®fungicide at 1 lb/acre was applied on August 15.

Sugar beets were harvested on October 14 and 15. The foliage was flailed and the crowns were removed with rotating disks. All sugar beets in the center two rows of each plot were dug with a two-row wheel-lifter harvester and weighed, and two eight-beet samples were taken from each plot. Samples were transported daily to the Snake River Sugar factory for laboratory analysis of sucrose, nitrate, and conductivity. The root-weight data were examined for outliers as is customary for calculations of sugar beet variety data in these trials. Observations more than two standard deviations from the mean for each variety were deleted. Sugar sample data were checked for errors in sugar percentages and conductivity. Any erroneous sample readings were deleted from the data set.

The weight of sugar beets from each plot was multiplied by 0.90 to estimate tare. Sugar concentrations were "factored" by multiplying measured sucrose by 0.98 to estimate the sugar that would have been lost to respiration if the beets had been stored in a pile. The data for each plot with two samples were averaged for analysis. The percent extraction was calculated using the formula:

Ext = 250 + [(1,255.2 * Cond) - (15,000 * Sug) - 6,185] / Sug *(98.66 - 7.845 * Cond)

where Ext is percent extraction, Cond is the electrical conductivity in mmho, and Sug is the percent sucrose concentration.

Variety differences in yield, sucrose content, conductivity, percent extraction, and estimated recoverable sugar were calculated using least-squares means analysis. The varieties were listed in the tables of results in descending order of estimated recoverable sugar. Reports of previous years' Oregon State University variety trials are available online at www.cropinfo.net.

Results

Variety results were grouped by estimated recoverable sugar. The root weights were tared 10 percent, as explained above. Root yield for beet varieties in the Commercial Trial averaged 47.48 tared ton/acre and 16.09 percent sugar content (Table 1). Varieties with the highest root yield in the Commercial Trial included 'BTS 25RR06' (51.75 ton/acre), 'BTS 27RR10', 'BTS 26RR11', 'BTS 25RR07' and 'BTS 26RR17'. Varieties among those with the highest recoverable sugar per acre were 'BTS 27RR10' (14,081 lb/acre), 'HM 9023RR', and 'BTS 25RR06'.

Root yield in the Experimental Trial averaged 45.62 tared ton/acre and 16.19 percent sugar content (Table 2). Varieties with the highest root yield included 'Crystal RR835' (52.82 ton/acre), 'Crystal RR876', 'HM 9126RR', and 'HM 9036RR'. Varieties with the highest recoverable sugar per acre were 'HM 9126RR' (14,153 lb/acre), 'Crystal RR835', 'HM 9036RR', 'HM 9122RR', 'BTS 27RR20', 'Crystal RR876', 'Crystal RR892', and 'SV36803RR'.



Table 1. Commercial Roundup Ready sugar beet variety performance in the Amalgamated Sugar Co. LLC Variety Trial at the Oregon State University Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, Oregon, 2008.



Root

Sugar

Gross

Conduc-

Extrac-

Estimated


Powdery mildew


yield

content

sugar

tivity

tion

recoverable sugar


resistance

VARIETY

(ton/acre)

(%)

(lb/acre)

(mmhos)

(%)

(lb/ton)

(lb/acre)


(0-9)











BTS 27RR10

50.77

16.29

16,538

0.727

85.15

277.4

14,081

a

4.9

HM 9023RR

48.29

16.65

16,082

0.746

84.98

283.0

13,670

ab

4.2

BTS 25RR06

51.75

15.61

16,126

0.829

83.62

261.2

13,491

abc

3.8

BTS 26RR11

49.86

15.71

15,654

0.783

84.29

265.0

13,195

bcd

4.3

BTS 26RR17

49.25

15.93

15,691

0.823

83.80

267.0

13,141

bcd

4.5

SV36601RR

48.99

15.84

15,513

0.814

83.91

265.8

13,018

bcd

5.1

Crystal RR989

46.57

16.63

15,491

0.846

83.64

278.3

12,958

bcd

3.8

BTS 26RR13

47.18

16.22

15,290

0.781

84.43

273.9

12,906

cd

4.9

BTS 26RR14

48.55

15.66

15,203

0.795

84.11

263.5

12,793

cde

4.5

BTS 25RR07

49.57

15.36

15,234

0.832

83.55

256.7

12,730

de

4.3

Crystal RR968

45.88

16.39

15,028

0.786

84.40

276.6

12,683

de

5.5

SX1571 RR

47.04

16.06

15,105

0.842

83.56

268.4

12,633

de

4.4

HM 9008RR

45.21

16.41

14,834

0.736

85.06

279.2

12,617

de

3.6

SV36603RR

46.89

15.89

14,900

0.789

84.24

267.8

12,554

de

4.8

HM 9009RR

45.15

16.37

14,794

0.761

84.73

277.5

12,538

de

4.4

Crystal RR966

43.23

17.14

14,820

0.819

84.09

288.3

12,469

de

3.8

BTS 25RR05

45.38

16.03

14,556

0.852

83.43

267.4

12,134

ef

5.3

SV36602RR

45.49

15.39

14,004

0.834

83.54

257.2

11,700

f

4.6

Average

47.48

16.09

15,273

0.800

84.14

271.0

12,853



LSD (0.05)

2.67

0.41

856

NS

1.15

8.9

755


0.5




Table 2. Experimental Roundup Ready sugar beet variety performance in the Amalgamated Sugar Co. LLC Variety Trial at the Oregon State University Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, Oregon, 2008.




Root

Sugar

Gross

Conduc-

Extrac-

Estimated


Powdery mildew


yield

content

sugar

tivity

tion

recoverable sugar


resistance1

VARIETY

(ton/acre)

(%)

(lb/acre)

(mmhos)

(%)

(lb/ton)

(lb/acre)


(0-9)

HM 9126RR

51.83

16.00

16,580

0.704

85.38

273.3

14,153

a

1.8

Crystal RR835

52.82

15.73

16,606

0.768

84.48

265.7

14,031

ab

3.9

HM 9036RR

51.08

15.78

16,109

0.733

84.96

268.1

13,686

abc

5.2

HM 9122RR

48.75

16.27

15,873

0.694

85.58

278.4

13,586

a-d

1.5

BTS 27RR20

46.42

17.04

15,814

0.695

85.72

292.2

13,557

a-d

4.2

Crystal RR876

52.23

15.53

16,215

0.852

83.31

258.8

13,505

a-d

4.5

Crystal RR892

47.62

16.63

15,832

0.736

85.10

283.1

13,477

a-e

4.0

SV36803RR

49.31

16.09

15,863

0.777

84.45

271.7

13,394

a-f

4.7

HM 9119RR

48.87

15.95

15,582

0.703

85.38

272.4

13,302

b-g

1.8

HM 9127RR

48.43

15.93

15,425

0.729

85.04

270.9

13,119

c-h

3.0

SV36601RR

48.41

15.92

15,418

0.776

84.42

268.9

13,016

c-i

4.8

BTS 28RR04

46.66

16.39

15,282

0.782

84.45

276.8

12,908

d-j

4.6

HM 9121RR

46.23

16.34

15,091

0.735

85.05

277.9

12,828

d-k

3.8

SX1583 RR

47.97

15.85

15,205

0.833

83.64

265.1

12,718

e-l

5.0

SV36801RR

46.40

16.07

14,917

0.734

85.02

273.3

12,682

f-m

4.7

HM 9137RR

45.85

16.20

14,854

0.724

85.17

276.0

12,648

f-m

3.5

Crystal RR846

43.26

16.91

14,621

0.679

85.91

290.6

12,560

g-n

4.0

Crystal RR880

43.38

16.73

14,512

0.634

86.45

289.2

12,546

g-n

4.9

Crystal RR870

44.25

16.77

14,854

0.827

83.93

281.6

12,475

h-o

3.9

BTS 28RR24

43.81

16.63

14,573

0.724

85.25

283.6

12,428

h-o

4.5

HM 9128RR

46.25

15.98

14,758

0.814

83.93

268.2

12,384

h-p

3.0

HM 9008RR

45.01

16.17

14,560

0.744

84.91

274.7

12,362

h-p

4.4

SV36804RR

45.69

15.96

14,587

0.769

84.53

269.8

12,334

i-p

4.6

Crystal RR919

44.71

16.12

14,420

0.714

85.28

275.0

12,293

i-p

5.6

HM 9120RR

45.12

16.04

14,481

0.765

84.59

271.4

12,253

i-q

4.1

HM 9047RR

44.28

16.18

14,329

0.716

85.26

275.9

12,220

j-q

6.4

SX1581 RR

44.74

16.02

14,331

0.779

84.39

270.3

12,090

j-q

4.2

Crystal RR929

43.12

16.57

14,291

0.775

84.58

280.3

12,087

k-q

7.0

HM 9118RR

42.86

16.50

14,128

0.751

84.88

280.1

11,983

l-q

3.8

BTS 26RR11

46.14

15.44

14,237

0.796

84.04

259.6

11,966

l-q

5.1

SV36805RR

44.86

15.82

14,193

0.798

84.11

266.2

11,940

m-q

4.6

HM 9124RR

40.82

16.92

13,808

0.641

86.39

292.4

11,927

m-q

5.3

HM 9026RR

42.74

16.42

14,038

0.784

84.42

277.3

11,854

n-q

4.4

BTS 28RR34

44.16

15.80

13,955

0.750

84.74

267.8

11,827

n-r

5.3

Crystal RR968

43.60

16.09

14,034

0.795

84.21

271.0

11,820

n-r

6.0

BTS 28RR4N

41.98

16.45

13,809

0.755

84.82

279.1

11,712

o-r

5.6

SV36802RR

42.42

16.11

13,671

0.734

85.02

274.0

11,627

p-s

5.2

HM 9117RR

42.10

16.25

13,682

0.811

84.03

273.2

11,498

qrs

3.3

BTS 28RR54

40.33

16.36

13,193

0.814

84.00

275.0

11,087

rs

7.4

SX1582 RR

41.90

15.40

12,901

0.782

84.23

259.4

10,867

s

4.6

Average

45.62

16.19

14,755

0.753

84.78

274.5

12,511



LSD (0.05)

2.73

0.37

895

0.070

0.95

8.0

767


0.6

1Powdery mildew ratings: 0 = no powdery mildew symptoms; 9 = 100% plant coverage.
Correlation with root yield: r = -0.004. Correlation with sugar content: r = -0.210.