SOYBEAN PERFORMANCE IN ONTARIO IN 2009

  Clinton C. Shock, Erik B. G. Feibert, and Lamont D. Saunders

Malheur Experiment Station

Oregon State University

Ontario, OR

Introduction

Soybean is a potentially valuable new crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW).  Soybean can provide raw materials for biodiesel, high-quality protein for animal nutrition, and oil for human consumption, all of which are in short supply in the PNW.  In addition, edible or vegetable soybean production can provide a raw material for specialized food products.  Soybean is valuable as a rotation crop because of the soil-improving qualities of its residues and its nitrogen (N2)-fixing capability.  Because high-value irrigated crops are typically grown in the Snake River Valley, soybeans may be economically feasible only at high yields.  The most common rotation crop in the Treasure Valley is irrigated winter wheat, so soybeans need to be competitive in value with winter wheat.  Through breeding, selection, and the development of appropriate cultural practices, we have succeeded in achieving high yields.  Since these soybean lines are non-GMO (genetically modified organism), they can also be used in organic food and feed programs.

Soybean varieties developed for the midwestern and southern states are not necessarily well adapted to Oregon’s lower night temperatures (problems with pod fill), lower relative humidity (problems with seed shatter), and other climatic differences.  Previous research at Ontario, Oregon has shown that, compared to the commercial cultivars bred for the Midwest, plants for eastern Oregon need to have 1) high tolerance to seed shatter, 2) reduced plant height and lodging, 3) increased seed set, and 4) higher harvest index (ratio of seed to the whole plant). 

M. Seddigh and G.D. Jolliff at Oregon State University, Corvallis, identified a soybean line that would fill pods when subjected to cool night temperatures.  This line was crossed at Corvallis with productive lines to produce ‘OR 6’ and ‘OR 8’, among others.  At this point, the development moved to Ontario, Oregon.  At our request these two lines were crossed with early maturing high-yielding semi-dwarf lines by R.L. Cooper (USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Wooster, OH) to produce semi-dwarf lines with potential adaptation to the PNW.  Selection criteria for F2 and subsequent lines at the Malheur Experiment Station (MES) included high yield, low lodging, zero shatter, shorter plant height, and maturity in the available growing season.  We specifically chose seed lines with clear hilum so that off colors would not contaminate possible food products.  Also, we selected for light seed coat and seed color to allow the widest possible food product manufacture.

In 1992, 241 single plants were selected from 5 F5 lines that were originally bred and selected for adaptation to eastern Oregon.  Seed from these selections was planted and evaluated in 1993; 18 F6 selections were found promising and selected for further testing in larger plots from 1994 through 1999.  Through these years of breeding and selection we successfully reduced plant height, reduced plant lodging, and increased yields.  Of the 18 lines, 8 were selected for further testing. 

In 1999, selections from one of the advanced MES lines were made by P. Sexton at the Central Oregon Agricultural Research and Extension Center (COAREC) in Madras, Oregon to help maintain germplasm true to type.  Sixteen of these selections made in Madras were chosen for further testing.  In 2000, we made further selections from six of our 1992 MES lines and from OR-6 to help maintain germplasm true to type. 

Starting in 2005, a new planting configuration was used.  The old planting configuration had one plant row on a 22-inch bed.  The new planting configuration has 3 rows on a 30-inch bed.  Our objective is to provide a more uniform distribution of the plants over the soil surface.  The more uniform plant distribution resulted in higher yields, perhaps due to improved access to light, nutrients, and water for individual plants.  The new planting configuration retains the same seeding rate of 200,000 seeds/acre as the old configuration.

This report summarizes work done in 2009 as part of our continuing breeding and selection program to adapt soybeans to eastern Oregon and includes the added yield enhancements achieved by changing the planting configuration.  Our soybean reports from the last decade are available at our station web site: http://www.cropinfo.net.  A search function on the home page will conveniently find all of our recent reports dealing with soybeans by using the key word “soybean”. 

Materials and Methods

The 2009 trial was conducted on an Owyhee silt loam previously planted to wheat.  In the spring of 2009, the field was disked twice, moldboard plowed, groundhogged twice, and bedded to 30-inch rows.  On May 14, Outlook® herbicide was applied at 18 oz. (0.84 lb. ai)/acre and incorporated during planting. 

Five commercial cultivars, 4 older lines selected at MES through 1992, and 34 lines selected in 1999 and 2000 were evaluated; these 43 selections were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates.  Each plot was four beds wide (30-inch beds) by 25 ft. long.  The seed was planted on May 14 at 200,000 seeds/acre in 3 rows on each 30-inch bed using a plot drill with disk openers.  The rows were spaced 7 inches apart (Fig. 1).  Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant (Cell-Tech, EMD Crop BioScience, Brookfield, WI) was applied to the seed before planting.  Emergence started on May 25.  Emergence was poor because the field dried too quickly and replanting occurred on June 12.  The replanted seed emerged on June 18.  

The field was furrow irrigated when the soil water tension at 8-inch depth reached 50-60 centibars (cb).  To understand how to irrigate using soil water tension as an irrigation criteria, see our extension brochure (Shock et al. 2005).  Soil water tension was monitored by six granular matrix sensors (GMS, Watermark Soil Moisture Sensors Model 200SS, Irrometer Co., Riverside, CA) installed in the bed center at 8-inch depth.  Sensors were automatically read three times a day with an AM-400 meter (Mike Hansen Co., East Wenatchee, WA).

The field was sprayed with Basagran® at 1 lb. ai/acre and Volunteer® at 0.19 lb. ai/acre on June 19 for weed control.  On July 30, lygus bug population was estimated by taking three 180° sweeps with a sweep net in three locations in the field.  We found an average of 0.8 lygus bugs/sweep so the field was not sprayed.

Plant height and reproductive stage were measured weekly for each cultivar.  Prior to harvest, each plot was evaluated for lodging and seed shatter.  Lodging was rated as the degree to which the plants were leaning over (0 = vertical, 10 = prostrate).  The middle two beds in each four-bed plot were harvested on October 12 using a Wintersteiger Nurserymaster small-plot combine.  Beans were cleaned, weighed, and a subsample was oven dried to determine moisture content.  Moisture at the time of analysis was determined by oven drying at 100°C for 24 hours.  Dry bean yields were corrected to 13 percent moisture.  Variety lodging, yield, and seed count were compared by analysis of variance.  Means separation was determined by the protected least significant difference test.

Results and Discussion

Yields in 2009 ranged from 33.3 bu./acre for ‘909’ to 59.2 bu./acre for ‘305’ (Table 1).  Several lines had seed counts sufficient for the manufacturing of tofu (<2,270 seeds/lb.).  Despite the low yields in 2008 and 2009, several lines averaged 60 or more bu./acre over the last 5 years (Table 2).  Yields in 2008 were lower than average due to late planting.  Yields in 2009 were lower than average due to the need for replanting and the consequential late emergence.


Figure 1. Soybean planting configuration used in 2005-2009, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

Summary

We have found over the years that high soybean yields can be achieved in the Treasure Valley by employing varieties selected for the environment, high planting rates, modest fertilization, use of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation, proper May planting dates, appropriate irrigation, and timely control of lygus bugs and spider mites.

References

Shock, C.C., R.J. Flock, E.B.G. Feibert, C.A. Shock, A.B. Pereira, and L.B. Jensen. 2005. Irrigation monitoring using soil water tension. Oregon State University Extension Service. EM8900 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/em/em8900.pdf


Table  1. Performance of soybean cultivars in 2009 with a late planting date. Cultivars are ranked by yield, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR. 

Cultivar

Origin

Days to maturity

 Lodging

Shatter

 Height

Seeds/lb

Yield

Plant population

 

 

days from emergence

--- 0-10 ---

cm

seeds/lb

bu/acre

plants/acre

305

M92-220

89

1.5

0.0

82.8

2,381

59.2

133,428

107

M92-085

82

2.3

0.0

93.3

2,204

58.0

141,394

103

M92-085

82

1.0

0.3

85.8

2,277

57.6

94,927

307

M92-220

89

0.7

0.0

87.0

2,372

57.4

109,531

M16

M92-330

82

3.5

0.0

90.8

2,201

55.8

136,747

M9

M92-330

89

2.7

0.0

90.5

2,117

55.5

143,386

308

M92-220

89

0.7

0.0

80.3

2,329

55.4

134,756

303

M92-220

82

3.0

0.0

82.3

2,403

55.4

129,445

M15

M92-330

82

3.7

0.0

85.0

2,244

54.0

142,722

M92-225

 

82

1.5

0.0

93.0

2,157

53.7

134,756

601

M92-314

92

0.0

0.0

83.5

2,272

53.3

117,497

104

M92-085

82

3.5

0.0

92.8

2,206

52.9

152,679

608

M92-314

82

2.0

0.0

81.8

2,102

52.7

165,956

M92-220

 

92

2.7

0.0

89.3

2,482

52.6

136,084

M3

M92-330

82

1.3

0.0

86.3

2,343

52.3

130,773

M12

M92-330

82

2.3

0.0

95.8

2,210

52.1

138,075

313

M92-220

89

2.3

0.0

86.8

2,273

51.9

120,152

101

M92-085

82

2.3

0.0

86.3

2,092

50.7

134,092

311

M92-220

82

1.3

0.0

84.3

2,412

49.8

120,816

M1

M92-330

82

1.5

0.0

90.8

2,190

49.7

161,973

514

M92-237

92

6.7

0.0

84.8

2,412

48.1

150,024

309

M92-220

89

1.7

0.3

82.8

2,396

47.9

142,722

108

M92-085

82

3.0

0.0

88.3

2,232

47.3

149,360

M13

M92-330

82

2.0

0.0

91.5

2,336

47.2

144,049

312

M92-220

89

1.3

0.0

86.3

2,303

47.2

138,739

106

M92-085

82

3.7

0.0

92.8

2,244

46.6

135,420

Gnome 85

 

92

6.5

0.5

92.0

2,271

46.4

104,884

511

M92-237

92

3.5

0.0

92.5

2,238

46.2

140,066

M92-085

 

82

2.7

0.0

93.8

2,225

45.3

148,696

Korada

 

92

4.0

0.0

90.3

2,328

44.4

139,403

OR-8

 

92

6.3

0.0

91.8

2,074

43.0

122,143

Evans

 

82

3.5

0.5

83.3

2,246

41.4

98,246

OR-6

 

89

8.0

0.0

71.0

2,221

39.8

130,109

M2

M92-330

82

1.0

0.0

90.0

2,287

39.0

102,892

Lambert

 

82

8.0

0.0

70.0

2,370

37.1

148,032

Sibley

 

92

6.0

0.5

88.0

1,976

35.8

126,126

905

OR-6

82

5.0

0.0

87.0

2,245

35.3

102,229

909

OR-6

89

7.5

0.0

72.3

2,260

33.3

128,118

Average

 

86

3.1

0.1

86.5

2,251

48.7

129,207

LSD (0.05)

 

 

2.4

 

12.1

155

9.7

28,007

Table 2.  Performance of soybean varieties from 2005 to 2009. Cultivars are ranked by average yield, Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Ontario, OR.

 

Yield

 

 

Average 2005 - 2009

Cultivar

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009*

 

Yield

Days to maturity

Height

Lodging

Seed count

 

----------------- bu/acre ----------------

 

bu/acre

 

cm

0-10

seeds/lb

M12

70.4

70.0

69.8

 

52.1

 

65.5

95

101

6

2,221

103

73.7

72.4

64.1

58.9

57.6

 

65.3

94

91

4

2,288

107

76.6

74.2

62.5

53.6

58.0

 

65.0

94

89

4

2,315

M15

73.9

68.4

64.8

57.3

54.0

 

63.7

95

89

5

2,286

M1

73.0

70.6

68.0

54.7

49.7

 

63.2

94

91

4

2,259

101

74.4

70.2

62.7

57.0

50.7

 

63.0

94

94

4

2,215

303

67.7

67.0

61.8

 

55.4

 

63.0

95

96

6

2,435

608

70.2

68.0

66.3

57.3

52.7

 

62.9

95

91

5

2,290

305

64.2

66.6

61.2

 

59.2

 

62.8

99

92

5

2,431

307

64.3

70.0

67.4

54.1

57.4

 

62.6

97

90

4

2,423

M16

69.1

69.6

69.0

49.4

55.8

 

62.6

94

97

4

2,337

M9

73.9

68.2

63.8

50.2

55.5

 

62.3

95

94

4

2,303

M13

67.9

66.6

65.6

 

47.2

 

61.8

95

101

5

2,263

104

70.9

66.6

67.2

51.2

52.9

 

61.8

94

93

5

2,308

308

64.6

65.2

61.6

 

55.4

 

61.7

102

88

4

2,400

313

62.5

68.4

63.2

 

51.9

 

61.5

99

92

5

2,392

312

68.4

71.8

64.3

55.5

47.2

 

61.4

97

90

4

2,416

511

65.0

70.2

64.0

 

46.2

 

61.4

105

103

6

2,438

106

72.0

70.4

64.7

52.8

46.6

 

61.3

94

84

4

2,275

514

68.6

66.6

59.6

 

48.1

 

60.7

102

100

7

2,384

M3

69.6

72.2

61.5

47.8

52.3

 

60.6

94

96

4

2,359

M92-220

63.4

68.8

57.4

 

52.6

 

60.6

100

92

5

2,424

M92-085

71.9

64.4

66.5

53.1

45.3

 

60.2

94

93

4

2,299

M92-225

68.0

66.0

65.8

47.5

53.7

 

60.2

94

91

4

2,328

108

70.5

65.8

66.9

50.4

47.3

 

60.2

94

91

4

2,354

311

68.1

67.4

54.1

 

49.8

 

59.8

97

90

5

2,425

Lambert

73.3

81.9

66.9

39.0

37.1

 

59.6

99

96

8

2,351

309

67.5

66.2

56.6

 

47.9

 

59.5

99

91

4

2,411

Gnome 85

65.4

75.4

69.2

40.6

46.4

 

59.4

99

90

8

2,294

M2

62.0

70.0

65.7

 

39.0

 

59.2

97

90

5

2,235

Korada

67.8

70.6

61.1

51.7

44.4

 

59.1

99

92

5

2,331

601

65.6

66.4

50.7

 

53.3

 

59.0

100

87

4

2,351

Evans

69.3

71.0

66.7

40.3

41.4

 

57.7

97

91

7

2,336

OR-6

65.1

72.2

62.9

47.0

39.8

 

57.4

95

94

8

2,313

905

71.1

66.2

55.0

 

35.3

 

56.9

95

96

8

2,384

OR-8

57.8

69.6

65.8

44.6

43.0

 

56.1

105

91

8

2,111

M4

73.0

72.6

64.8

46.4

 

 

64.2

94

88

4

2,278

909

70.8

66.2

49.1

 

33.3

 

54.9

99

91

9

2,296

Sibley

56.2

66.8

63.3

40.1

35.8

 

52.4

105

86

8

2,073

Average

68.4

69.2

63.1

50.0

47.9

 

60.8

96.9

92.3

5.3

2,324

*Late planting date due to stand establishment failure.